A report on Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

278 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Roman Empire at its territorial greatest extent in 117 AD, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)

Empire

0 links

A "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries".

A "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries".

The Roman Empire at its territorial greatest extent in 117 AD, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Diachronic map of the main empires of the modern era (1492–1945).
Map showing the four empires of Eurasia in the 2nd century AD
All areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese established in the early 16th century together with the Spanish Empire the first global empire and trade network.
Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar

The successful and extensive Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC), also known as the first Persian Empire, covered Mesopotamia, Egypt, parts of Greece, Thrace, the Middle East, much of Central Asia, and North-Western India.

Naqsh-e Rostam

10 links

Ancient archeological site and necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran.

Ancient archeological site and necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran.

Map of the archaeological site of Naqsh-e Rostam
Upper register of the Achaemenid Tomb of Xerxes I
A 17th century drawing of Naqsh e Rostam, by Jean Chardin
Cube of Zoroaster, a cube-shaped construction in the foreground, against the backdrop of Naqsh-e Rostam
The investiture of Ardashir I
The triumph of Shapur I over the Roman emperors Valerian and Philip the Arab
The grandee relief of Bahram II
The investiture of Narseh
The equestrian relief of Hormizd II
Ka'ba-ye Zartosht in foreground, with behind the Tomb of Darius II above Sassanid equestrian relief of Bahram II.
First equestrian relief.
The two-panel equestrian relief.
Hormizd I Kushanshah on the lower panel.

A collection of ancient Iranian rock reliefs are cut into the face of the mountain and the mountain contains the final resting place of four Achaemenid kings notably king Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes.

Darius II as depicted on his tomb in Naqsh-e Rostam

Darius II

8 links

Darius II as depicted on his tomb in Naqsh-e Rostam
Soldiers of the Empire, on the tomb of Darius II.
Location of Darius II in the Achaemenid family tree.
Prospective tomb of Darius II in Naqsh-e Rostam

Darius II ( Dārayavaʰuš; Dareios), also known by his given name Ochus (Ὦχος Ochos), was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 423 BC to 405 or 404 BC.

The ruins of Delos, location of the treasury of the Delian League until 454 BC

Wars of the Delian League

6 links

The ruins of Delos, location of the treasury of the Delian League until 454 BC
Thucydides, whose history provides many of the details of this period
Map showing main events of the Ionian Revolt and the Persian invasions of Greece
Athens and her empire in 431 BC. The Athenian Empire was the direct descendant of the Delian League.
Pericles, the Athenian politician who led Athens through much of her "Golden Age"
Map showing the locations of battles fought by the Delian League, 477–450 BC
The ancient Persian fort at Eion (left) and the mouth of the Strymon River (right), seen from Ennea Hodoi (Amphipolis).
Reconstructed model of a trireme, the type of ship in use by both the Greek and Persian forces
The Persian archer on the Eurymedon vase, made circa 460 BC. On the reverse is a naked ithyphallic Greek warrior. An inscription on the vase states εύρυμέδον ειμ[í] κυβα[---] έστεκα "I am Eurymedon, I stand bent forward", in probable reference to the Persian defeat and humiliation at the Battle of the Eurymedon.
Main actions of the Egyptian campaign of the Wars of the Delian League, to which the Athenian Admiral Charitimides participated
Map of Egypt showing relevant locations, where known, to the Delian league campaign of 460–454 BC
Egyptian soldier, circa 470 BCE – Xerxes I tomb relief
Map showing the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus
The ruins of Salamis-in-Cyprus

The Wars of the Delian League (477–449 BC) were a series of campaigns fought between the Delian League of Athens and her allies (and later subjects), and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.

Bust of Cimon in Larnaca, Cyprus

Cimon

9 links

Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.

Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.

Bust of Cimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
Cimon takes command of the Greek Fleet.
Pieces of broken pottery (Ostracon) as voting tokens for ostracism. The persons nominated are Pericles, Cimon and Aristides, each with his patronymic (top to bottom).

One of Cimon's greatest exploits was his destruction of a Persian fleet and army at the Battle of the Eurymedon river in 466 BC. In 462 BC, he led an unsuccessful expedition to support the Spartans during the helot uprisings.

Bulgaria

5 links

Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Odrysian golden wreath in the National History Museum
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
The walls of Tsarevets fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the second empire
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the end of medieval Bulgarian statehood.
The Russo-Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass in 1877
Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
Tsar Boris III
Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946 to 1949
Topography of Bulgaria
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
The Pirin mountain range
Lacerta viridis in Ropotamo, one of Bulgaria's 16 biosphere reserves
Independence Square in Sofia: The headquarters of the Presidency (right), the National Assembly (centre) and the Council of Ministers (left).
Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters of the Bulgarian Air Force
Historical development of GDP per capita
Economic growth (green) and unemployment (blue) statistics since 2001
Tree map of Bulgarian exports in 2016
The launch of BulgariaSat-1 by SpaceX
Trakia motorway
Population trend since 1960
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
The Rectorate of Sofia University
Kuker in Lesichovo
Christo's Mastaba in Hyde Park, London
Grigor Dimitrov at the 2015 Italian Open
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia

The Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered parts of present-day Bulgaria (in particular eastern Bulgaria) in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC.

Gold dinar of Ardashir I, 230 AD

Ardashir I

9 links

The founder of the Sasanian Empire.

The founder of the Sasanian Empire.

Gold dinar of Ardashir I, 230 AD
75x75px
Drachma of Ardashir I, minted at Hamadan between 233–239
Initial coinage of Ardashir I, as King of Persis Artaxerxes (Ardaxsir) V. c. 205/6–223/4. Obv: Bearded facing head, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "The divine Ardaxir, king" in Pahlavi. Rev: Bearded head of Papak, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "son of the divinity Papak, king" in Pahlavi.
Silver drachma of Ardashir I, struck at the Hamadan mint, dated c. 238–239. The obverse of the coin depicts Ardashir I with legend "The divine Mazdayasnian King Ardashir, King of King of the Iranians", while the reverse shows a fire altar with the legend "Ardashir's fire".
Drachma of Vadfradad I; the picture behind it is a structure similar to Ka'ba-ye Zartosht.
Map of Pars.
Ghaleh Dokhtar, or "The Maiden's Castle," Iran, built by Ardashir I in AD 209, before he was finally able to defeat the Parthian empire.
The second carving of "coronation" and the third carving of Ahura Mazda by Ardashir, carved in Naqsh-e Rajab
The first carving of "coronation" and the second carving of Ahura Mazda by Ardashir, Ardashir standing against his henchmen, city of Gur (current Firuzabad)
The third carving of "coronation" and the fourth carving of Ahura Mazda by Ardashir, carved in Naqsh-e Rustam. Ardashir and Ahura Mazda on horsebacks in front of each other, with the corpses of Artabanus and Ahriman under the nails of their horses, and Ardashir taking the ring of reign from Ahura Mazda
The fourth carving of "coronation" and the fifth carving of Ardashir in Khan-Takhti, Salmas
The picture of one of Ardashir's second group coins; Ardashir I's portrait on the coin and the symbol of firebox behind it
A view of the Palace of Ardashir, the city of Gur (current Firuzabad), the entrance hall and supporting halls of the palace were covered with wheel domes. The outside walls did not have windows, but did contain prominent and dome-like columns.
Ardashir I and his Dastur (Councillor). Page from the Great Mongol Shahnameh. Keir Collection

The claim of the legitimacy of his reign as a rightful newcomer from the line of the mythical Iranian shahs and the propagations attributed to Ardashir against the legitimacy and role of the Parthians in the Iranian history sequence show the valuable place that the Achaemenid legacy had in the minds of the first Sasanian shahanshahs; though the current belief is that the Sasanians did not know much about the Achaemenids and their status.

Thebes, Greece

10 links

City in Boeotia, Central Greece.

City in Boeotia, Central Greece.

Interior of the Archaeological Museum of Thebes
Exhibit at the museum
Theban workshop (Oinochoe type), 7th century BC
Topographic map of ancient Thebes
Ancient coin depicting a Boeotian shield, AM of Thebes
Silver stater of Thebes (405-395 BC). Obverse: Boeotian shield, reverse: Head of bearded Dionysus.
Map of Greece during the height of Theban power in 362 BC, showing Theban, Spartan and Athenian power blocks
Ruins of Thebes
The Duchy of Athens and the other Greek and Latin states of southern Greece, ca. 1210
View of Thebes (1819) by Hugh William Williams
Thebes, 1842 by Carl Rottmann
Popular festival at Thebes, 1880s
A bust of Pindar
Entrance to the archaeological museum
Monastery of Transfiguration

It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes I.

Coinage of Miletus at the time of Aristagoras. 5th century BC

Aristagoras

5 links

Coinage of Miletus at the time of Aristagoras. 5th century BC
Map of the ancient Greek western coast of Anatolia. Ionia is in green. Miletus and Naxos are shown.
Ruins of Miletus
The burning of Sardis, capital of the Asia Minor Satrapy of Lydia, during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Ruins of Sparta
Ruins of Ephesus
The acropolis at Sardis, now forested and eroded, with a few pinnacles of ruins.

Aristagoras, d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of the Ionian city of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt against the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

The region of Parthia within the empire of Medes, c. 600 BC; from a historical atlas illustrated by William Robert Shepherd

Parthia

18 links

Historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

Historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

The region of Parthia within the empire of Medes, c. 600 BC; from a historical atlas illustrated by William Robert Shepherd
Xerxes I tomb, Parthian soldier circa 470 BCE
Parthia ( 𓊪𓃭𓍘𓇋𓍯𓈉, P-rw-t-i-wꜣ), as one of the 24 subjects of the Achaemenid Empire, in the Egyptian Statue of Darius I.
Coin of Andragoras, the last Seleucid satrap of Parthia. He proclaimed independence around 250 BC.
Parthian horseman now on display at the Palazzo Madama, Turin.
Coin of Mithridates I (R. 171–138 BC). The reverse shows Heracles, and the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ "Great King Arsaces, friend of Greeks".
Reproduction of a Parthian archer as depicted on Trajan's Column.
A sculpted head (broken off from a larger statue) of a Parthian soldier wearing a Hellenistic-style helmet, from the Parthian royal residence and necropolis of Nisa, 2nd century BC
Hercules, Hatra, Iraq, Parthian period, 1st–2nd century AD.
Parthian waterspout, 1st–2nd century AD.

It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great.