Achilles

Ancient Greek polychromatic pottery painting (dating to c. undefined 300 BC) of Achilles during the Trojan War
The Education of Achilles, by Eugène Delacroix, pastel on paper, c. 1862 (Getty Center, Los Angeles)
Thetis Dipping the Infant Achilles into the River Styx by Peter Paul Rubens (c. 1625; Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam)
Chiron teaching Achilles how to play the lyre, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, 1st century AD
The Education of Achilles (c. 1772), by James Barry (Yale Center for British Art)
A Roman mosaic from the Poseidon Villa in Zeugma, Commagene (now in the Zeugma Mosaic Museum) depicting Achilles disguised as a woman and Odysseus tricking him into revealing himself
Achilles and Agamemnon, from a mosaic from Pompeii, 1st century AD
Achilles slaying Troilus, red-figure kylix signed by Euphronios
Achilles cedes Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD (Naples National Archaeological Museum)
The Rage of Achilles, fresco by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Villa Valmarana ai Nani, Vicenza)
Achilles and Memnon fighting, between Thetis and Eos, Attic black-figure amphora, c. 510 BC, from Vulci
Achilles tending Patroclus wounded by an arrow, Attic red-figure kylix, c. 500 BC (Altes Museum, Berlin)
Dying Achilles (Achilleas thniskon) in the gardens of the Achilleion
Ajax carries off the body of Achilles, Attic black-figure lekythos from Sicily, c. 510 BC (Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich)
Oinochoe, ca 520 BC, Ajax and Odysseus fighting over the armour of Achilles
Sacrifice of Polyxena and tumulus-shaped tomb of Achilles with a tripod in front, on the Polyxena sarcophagus, circa 500 BC.
Roman statue of a man with the dead body of a boy, identified as Achilles and Troilus, 2nd century AD (Naples National Archaeological Museum)
Briseis and Achilles, engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607–1677)
The Wrath of Achilles (c. 1630–1635), painting by Peter Paul Rubens
The death of Hector, unfinished oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens
Achilles and Agamemnon by Gottlieb Schick (1801)
The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1847; Musée Fabre)
Achilles and the Nereid Cymothoe, Attic red-figure kantharos from Volci (Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris)
The embassy to Achilles, Attic red-figure hydria, c. 480 BC (Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Berlin)
Achilles sacrificing to Zeus for Patroclus' safe return,<ref>Iliad 16.220–252.</ref> from the Ambrosian Iliad, a 5th-century illuminated manuscript
Achilles and Penthesilea fighting, Lucanian red-figure bell-krater, late 5th century BC
Achilles killing Penthesilea, tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix, c. 465 BC, from Vulci.
Thetis and the Nereids mourning Achilles, Corinthian black-figure hydria, c. 555 BC (Louvre, Paris)
Achilles and Ajax playing the board game petteia, black-figure oinochoe, c. 530 BC (Capitoline Museums, Rome)
Head of Achilles depicted on a 4th-century BC coin from Kremaste, Phthia. Reverse: Thetis, wearing and holding the shield of Achilles with his AX monogram.
Achilles on a Roman mosaic with the Removal of Briseis, 2nd century

Hero of the Trojan War, the greatest of all the Greek warriors, and the central character of Homer's Iliad.

- Achilles
Ancient Greek polychromatic pottery painting (dating to c. undefined 300 BC) of Achilles during the Trojan War

137 related topics

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The Golden Apple of Discord by Jacob Jordaens

Trojan War

Waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

Waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

The Golden Apple of Discord by Jacob Jordaens
The Burning of Troy (1759/62), oil painting by Johann Georg Trautmann
Polyxena Sarcophagus in Troy Museum.
Musician figures from clay in Troy Museum.
The Judgement of Paris (1599) by Hendrick van Balen the Elder. Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
Thetis gives her son Achilles weapons forged by Hephaestus (detail of Attic black-figure hydria, 575–550 BC)
The Abduction of Helen (1530–39) by Francesco Primaticcio, with Aphrodite directing
A map of Homeric Greece
A scene from the Iliad where Odysseus (Ulysses) discovers Achilles dressed as a woman and hiding among the princesses at the royal court of Skyros. A late Roman mosaic from La Olmeda, Spain, 4th–5th centuries AD
The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes (1664) by Jan de Bray
A map of the Troäd (Troas)
Philoctetes on Lemnos, with Heracles' bow and quiver (Attic red-figure lekythos, 420 BC)
Achilles' surrender of Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum
Achilles and Ajax engaged in a game, c. 540–530 BC, Vatican Museums
Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter (360–350 BC)
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's body around Troy, from a panoramic fresco of the Achilleion
Achilles killing the Amazon Penthesilea
The suicide of Ajax depicted on Greek pottery by Exekias, now on display at the Château-musée de Boulogne-sur-Mer
A fresco depicting Odysseus, Diomedes, and Cassandra, from Pompeii, Italy, 1st century BC – 1st century AD
The earliest known depiction of the Trojan Horse, from the Mykonos vase c. 670 BC
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, kills King Priam (detail of Attic black-figure amphora, 520–510 BC)
Menelaus captures Helen in Troy, Ajax the Lesser drags Cassandra from Palladium before eyes of Priam, fresco from the Casa del Menandro, Pompeii
Poseidon smites Ajax the Lesser, by Bonaventura Genelli (1798–1868)
The murder of Agamemnon (1879 illustration from Alfred Church's Stories from the Greek Tragedians)
Odysseus and Polyphemus by Arnold Böcklin: the Cyclops' curse delays the homecoming of Odysseus for another ten years
Aeneas Flees Burning Troy (1598) by Federico Barocci
Map showing the Hittite Empire, Ahhiyawa (possibly the Achaeans) and Wilusa (Troy)
Tabula Iliaca, a 1st-century BC Roman bas-relief depicting scenes from Trojan War narratives

After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse.

Inscription of lines 468-473, Book I. 400–500 AD, from Egypt. On display at the British Museum

Iliad

Ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

Ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

Inscription of lines 468-473, Book I. 400–500 AD, from Egypt. On display at the British Museum
The first verses of the Iliad
Iliad, Book VIII, lines 245–53, Greek manuscript, late 5th, early 6th centuries AD.
Hypnos and Thanatos carrying the body of Sarpedon from the battlefield of Troy; detail from an Attic white-ground lekythos, c. 440 BC.
The Wrath of Achilles (1819), by Michel Martin Drolling.
Achilles Slays Hector, by Peter Paul Rubens (1630–35).
Wenceslas Hollar's engraved title page of a 1660 edition of the Iliad, translated by John Ogilby.
Sampling of translations and editions of Iliad in English

Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Mycenaean Greek states (Achaeans), it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.

Apollo Belvedere, c. 120–140 CE

Apollo

One of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

One of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

Apollo Belvedere, c. 120–140 CE
Apollo Belvedere, c. 120–140 CE
Apollo, fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD
Apollo seated with lyre. Porphyry and marble, 2nd century AD. Farnese collection, Naples, Italy.
Partial view of the temple of Apollo Epikurios (healer) at Bassae in southern Greece
Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to Apollo (478 BC). 19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.
Temple of Apollo Smintheus in Çanakkale Province, Turkey
William Birnie Rhind, Apollo (1889–1894), pediment sculpture, former Sun Life Building, Renfield Street Glasgow
The Omphalos in the Museum of Delphi
Apollo Victorious over the Python by Pietro Francavilla (1591) depicting Apollo's victory over the serpent Python (The Walters Art Museum).
Ornamented golden Minoan labrys
Illustration of a coin of Apollo Agyieus from Ambracia
Columns of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece
Heracles steals Apollo's tripod, Attic black-figure oinochoe, ca. 520 BC.
Delos lions
Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Corinth
Floor plan of the temple of Apollo, Syracuse
Floor plan of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae
Temple of Apollo, Didyma
Plan of the Temple of Apollo (Pompeii)
Leto holding Apollo, by Lazar Widmann
Leto with her children, by William Henry Rinehart
Leto with Apollo and Artemis, by Francesco Pozzi
Phoebe gifts the oracular tripod to Apollo, by John Flaxman
Apollo victorious over the Python, by François Gaspard Adam
Python pursuing Leto and her children, engravings on wood
Apollo killing the Python, by Hendrik Goltzius
Apollo slaying Tityos, Attic red-figure kylix, 460–450 BC
Apollo Guards the Herds (or Flocks) of King Admetus, by Felice Gianni
Niobe's children are killed by Apollo and Diana by Pierre-Charles Jombert
Laomedon Refusing Payment to Poseidon and Apollo, by Joachim von Sandrart
Apollo preceding Hector with his Aegis, and dispersing the Greeks, by John Flaxman
Apollo prevents Diomedes from pursuing Aeneas
Apollo protecting Hector's body, by John Flaxman
Heracles and Apollo struggling over the Hind, as depicted on a Corinthian helmet (early 5th century BC)
The music of the spheres. Shown in this engraving from Renaissance Italy are Apollo, the Muses, the planetary spheres and musical ratios.
Apollo and the Muses on Parnassus, by Andrea Appiani
Detail of Apollo's lyre
The friendship of Apollo and Hermes, by Noël Coypel
The musical duel of Pan and Apollo, by Laurits Tuxen
The contest between Apollo and Marsyas by Palma il Giovane
Marsyas Flayed by the Order of Apollo, by	Charles-André van Loo
Apollon Raon, Versailles
Paris (on the left) putting on his armour as Apollo (on the right) watches him. Attic red-figure kantharos, 425 - 420 BC
Apollo as the rising sun, by François Boucher
Apollo crowning the arts, by Nicolas-Guy Brenet
Apollo as the setting sun, by François Boucher
Apollo and Daphne by Bernini in the Galleria Borghese
Apollo and the Muses, by Robert Sanderson
Apollo and Daphne, Vienna, around 1688/90, statuette made of ivory
Apollo and Hyacinthus, by Carlo Cesio
Death of Hyacinth, by Alexander Kiselyov
Apollo and Cyparissus, by Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840)
Apollo visiting Admetus, by Nicolas-Antoine Taunay
Apollo Entrusting Chiron with the Education of Aescalapius
Apollo and Artemis, by Gavin Hamilton
Apollo (left) and Artemis. Brygos (potter signed), tondo of an Attic red-figure cup c. 470 BC, Musée du Louvre.
Hecate's procession by the witches, by Jusepe de Ribera
Pallas Athene Visiting Apollo on the Parnassus, by Arnold Houbraken
Gold stater of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter (reigned 281–261 BCE) showing on the reverse a nude Apollo holding his key attributes: two arrows and a bow
Apollo Citharoedus ("Apollo with a kithara"), Musei Capitolini, Rome
Piraeus Apollo, archaic-style bronze, Archaeological Museum of Piraeus
Apollo of Mantua, marble Roman copy after a 5th-century BCE Greek original attributed to Polykleitos, Musée du Louvre
A marble sculpture of Apollo and Marsyas by Walter Runeberg at the arrivals hall of Ateneum in Helsinki, Finland
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Finally, Apollo caused Achilles' death by guiding an arrow shot by Paris into Achilles' heel.

Head of Odysseus from a Roman period Hellenistic marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga, Italy

Odysseus

Legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.

Legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.

Head of Odysseus from a Roman period Hellenistic marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga, Italy
Menelaus and Meriones lifting Patroclus' corpse on a cart while Odysseus looks on, Etruscan alabaster urn from Volterra, Italy, 2nd century BC
Odysseus and Diomedes stealing the horses of Thracian king Rhesus they have just killed. Apulian red-figure situla, from Ruvo
Roman mosaic depicting Odysseus at Skyros unveiling the disguised Achilles; from La Olmeda, Pedrosa de la Vega, Spain, 5th century AD
Oinochoe, ca 520 BC, Odysseus and Ajax fighting over the armour of Achilles
Odysseus (pileus hat) carrying off the palladion from Troy, with the help of Diomedes, against the resistance of Cassandra and other Trojans. Antique fresco from Pompeii.
Odysseus and Polyphemus (1896) by Arnold Böcklin: Odysseus and his crew escape the Cyclops Polyphemus
Odysseus and the Sirens, Ulixes mosaic at the Bardo National Museum in Tunis, Tunisia, 2nd century AD
The return of Ulysses, illustration by E. M. Synge from the 1909 Story of the World children's book series (book 1: On the shores of Great Sea)
Head of Odysseus wearing a pileus depicted on a 3rd-century BC coin from Ithaca
The bay of Palaiokastritsa in Corfu as seen from Bella vista of Lakones. Corfu is considered to be the mythical island of the Phaeacians. The bay of Palaiokastritsa is considered to be the place where Odysseus disembarked and met Nausicaa for the first time. The rock in the sea visible near the horizon at the top centre-left of the picture is considered by the locals to be the mythical petrified ship of Odysseus. The side of the rock toward the mainland is curved in such a way as to resemble the extended sail of a trireme.

Odysseus and other envoys of Agamemnon travel to Scyros to recruit Achilles because of a prophecy that Troy could not be taken without him.

The so-called Mask of Agamemnon, which was discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae, now believed to pre-date the legendary Trojan War by 300 years

Agamemnon

King of Mycenae, the son, or grandson, of King Atreus and Queen Aerope, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis.

King of Mycenae, the son, or grandson, of King Atreus and Queen Aerope, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis.

The so-called Mask of Agamemnon, which was discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae, now believed to pre-date the legendary Trojan War by 300 years
Charles de La Fosse - Le sacrifice d'Iphigénie
Achilles' surrender of Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum
The suicide of Ajax depicted on Greek pottery by Exekias, now on display at the Château-musée de Boulogne-sur-Mer
The assassination of Agamemnon, an illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church, 1897.
Orestes slaying Clytemnestra
Family Tree of the House of Atreus
Pierre-Narcisse Guérin - Clytemnestra and Agamemnon
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo - The Sacrifice of Iphigenia
Jacques-Louis David - The Anger of Achilles

Classical dramatizations differ on how willing either father or daughter was to this fate; some include such trickery as claiming she was to be married to Achilles, but Agamemnon did eventually sacrifice Iphigenia.

Head of Thetis from an Attic red-figure pelike, c. 510–500 BC, Louvre

Thetis

Not be confused with the sea-goddess Tethys (mythology), or Themis, the embodiment of law.

Not be confused with the sea-goddess Tethys (mythology), or Themis, the embodiment of law.

Head of Thetis from an Attic red-figure pelike, c. 510–500 BC, Louvre
Thetis on an antique fresco in Pompeii
Immortal Thetis with the mortal Peleus in the foreground, Boeotian black-figure dish, c. 500–475 BC - Louvre.
Thetis changing into a lioness as she is attacked by Peleus, Attic red-figured kylix by Douris, c. 490 BC from Vulci, Etruria - Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris.
Thetis dips Achilles in the Styx by Peter Paul Rubens (between 1630 and 1635)
Thetis at Hephaestus' forge waiting to receive Achilles' new weapons. Fresco from Pompeii.
Thetis and attendants bring armor she had prepared for him to Achilles, an Attic black-figure hydria, c. 575–550 BC, Louvre.
Jupiter and Thetis, Ingres: "She sank to the ground beside him, put her left arm round his knees, raised her right hand to touch his chin, and so made her petition to the Royal Son of Cronos" (Iliad, I.)
Thetis and the Nereids mourning Achilles, Corinthian black-figure hydria, 560–550 BC; note the Gorgon shield, Louvre
Thetis depicted (left) on a CSA $10 bill in 1861-62.

In the Trojan War cycle of myth, the wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the precipitating events in the war which also led to the birth of their child Achilles.

Achilles and Penthesileia by Exekias, c. 540 BC, British Museum, London

Greek mythology

Body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore.

Body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore.

Achilles and Penthesileia by Exekias, c. 540 BC, British Museum, London
Prometheus (1868 by Gustave Moreau). The myth of Prometheus first was attested by Hesiod and then constituted the basis for a tragic trilogy of plays, possibly by Aeschylus, consisting of Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Unbound, and Prometheus Pyrphoros.
The Roman poet Virgil, here depicted in the fifth-century manuscript, the Vergilius Romanus, preserved details of Greek mythology in many of his writings.
Phaedra with an attendant, probably her nurse, a fresco from Pompeii, c. 60
Amor Vincit Omnia (Love Conquers All), a depiction of the god of love, Eros. By Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, circa 1601–1602.
Attic black-figured amphora depicting Athena being "reborn" from the head of Zeus, who had swallowed her mother Metis, on the right, Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, assists, circa 550–525 BC (Musée du Louvre, Paris).
Zeus, disguised as a swan, seduces Leda, the Queen of Sparta. A sixteenth-century copy of the lost original by Michelangelo.
Dionysus with satyrs. Interior of a cup painted by the Brygos Painter, Cabinet des Médailles.
Demeter and Metanira in a detail on an Apulian red-figure hydria, circa 340 BC (Altes Museum, Berlin).
Heracles with his baby Telephus (Louvre Museum, Paris).
Bellerophon riding Pegasus and slaying the Chimera, central medallion of a Roman mosaic from Autun, Musée Rolin, 2nd to 3rd century AD
El Juicio de Paris by Enrique Simonet, 1904. Paris is holding the golden apple on his right hand while surveying the goddesses in a calculative manner.
In The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Fresco, 300 x 300 cm, Villa Valmarana, Vicenza) Achilles is outraged that Agamemnon would threaten to seize his warprize, Briseis, and he draws his sword to kill Agamemnon. The sudden appearance of the goddess Athena, who, in this fresco, has grabbed Achilles by the hair, prevents the act of violence.
Plato in Raphael's The School of Athens.
Cicero saw himself as the defender of the established order, despite his personal skepticism concerning myth and his inclination towards more philosophical conceptions of divinity.
Apollo (early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth-century Greek original, Louvre Museum).
Max Müller is regarded as one of the founders of comparative mythology. In his Comparative Mythology (1867) Müller analysed the "disturbing" similarity between the mythologies of "savage races" with those of the early Europeans.
Botticelli's The Birth of Venus (c. 1485–1486, oil on canvas, Uffizi, Florence)—a revived Venus Pudica for a new view of pagan Antiquity—is often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance.
The Lament for Icarus (1898) by Herbert James Draper

Previously existing myths, such as those of Achilles and Patroclus, also then were cast in a pederastic light.

Zeus de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680

Zeus

Sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

Sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

Zeus de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680
"Cave of Zeus", Mount Ida, Crete
1st century BC statue of Zeus
Zeus (centre-left) battles against Porphyrion (far-right), detail of the Gigantomachy frieze from the Pergamon Altar, Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
The Chariot of Zeus, from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.
Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida by James Barry, 1773 (City Art Galleries, Sheffield.)
Jupiter, disguised as a shepherd, tempts Mnemosyne by Jacob de Wit (1727)
Wedding of Zeus and Hera on an antique fresco from Pompeii
Zeus carrying away Ganymede (Late Archaic terracotta, 480-470 BC)
Roman marble colossal head of Zeus, 2nd century AD (British Museum)
A bust of Zeus.
Marble eagle from the sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos, Archaeological Museum of Dion.
Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. Roman period Marnas was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum).
Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a gold stater, Lampsacus, c 360–340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles).
A statue of Zeus in a drawing.
Roman cast terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter Ammon, 1st century AD (Museo Barracco, Rome).
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145-130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115-95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Zeus as Vajrapāni, the protector of the Buddha. 2nd century, Greco-Buddhist art.
Niall MacGinnis as Zeus in Jason and the Argonauts
The abduction of Europa from Zeus
Olympian assembly, from left to right: Apollo, Zeus and Hera
The "Golden Man" Zeus statue
Enthroned Zeus (Greek, c. 100 BC) - modeled after the Olympian Zeus by Pheidas (c. 430 BC)
Zeus and Hera
Zeus statue
Zeus/Poseidon statue

Book 24: Zeus demands that Achilles release the corpse of Hector to be buried honourably

Prince Paris with apple by H.W. Bissen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

Paris (mythology)

Mythological nobleman that appears in a number of Greek legends.

Mythological nobleman that appears in a number of Greek legends.

Prince Paris with apple by H.W. Bissen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Abduction of Helen, ceiling fresco, Venetian, mid-18th century
The Love of Helen and Paris by Jacques-Louis David (oil on canvas, 1788, Louvre, Paris)
Paris, in "Phrygian dress", a second-century CE Roman marble (The King's Library, British Museum)
Paris receives Hermes who leads Athena, Hera and Aphrodite. Painting on terracotta panels, 560-550 BC
El Juicio de Paris by Enrique Simonet, c. 1904. Paris is studying Aphrodite, who is standing before him naked. The other two goddesses watch nearby.
Judgement of Paris, c. 1801, Capodimonte porcelain (Capitoline Museums, Rome)

Later in the war, he fatally wounds Achilles in the heel with an arrow as foretold by Achilles' mother, Thetis.

Mattei Athena at Louvre. Roman copy from the 1st century BC/AD after a Greek original of the 4th century BC, attributed to Cephisodotos or Euphranor.

Athena

Ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

Ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

Mattei Athena at Louvre. Roman copy from the 1st century BC/AD after a Greek original of the 4th century BC, attributed to Cephisodotos or Euphranor.
The Acropolis at Athens (1846) by Leo von Klenze. Athena's name probably comes from the name of the city of Athens.
Fragment of a fresco from the Cult Center at Mycenae dating the late thirteenth century BC depicting a warrior goddess, possibly Athena, wearing a boar's tusk helmet and clutching a griffin.
Ancient Akkadian cylinder seal (dating c. undefined 2334–2154 BC) depicting Inanna, the goddess of war, armored and carrying weapons, resting her foot on the back of a lion
Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena
A new peplos was woven for Athena and ceremonially brought to dress her cult image (British Museum).
The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, which is dedicated to Athena Parthenos
Reverse side of a Pergamene silver tetradrachm minted by Attalus I, showing Athena seated on a throne (c. 200 BC)
The owl of Athena, surrounded by an olive wreath. Reverse of an Athenian silver tetradrachm, c. undefined 175 BC
Athena is "born" from Zeus's forehead as a result of him having swallowed her mother Metis, as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia on the right; black-figured amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.
The Varvakeion Athena, the most faithful copy of the Athena Parthenos, as displayed in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Detail of a Roman fresco from Pompeii showing Ajax the Lesser dragging Cassandra away from the palladion during the fall of Troy, an event which provoked Athena's wrath against the Greek armies
The Dispute of Minerva and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse (c. 1689 or 1706)
The Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena. The guardian serpent of the Athenian Acropolis sits coiled at her feet.
Attic red-figure kylix painting from c. undefined 480-470 BC showing Athena observing as the Colchian dragon disgorges the hero Jason
Classical Greek depiction of Medusa from the fourth century BC
Minerva and Arachne by René-Antoine Houasse (1706)
Ancient Greek mosaic from Antioch dating to the second century AD, depicting the Judgement of Paris
Statue of Pallas Athena in front of the Austrian Parliament Building. Athena has been used throughout Western history as a symbol of freedom and democracy.
Modern Neopagan Hellenist altar dedicated to Athena and Apollo
Athena and Heracles on an Attic red-figure kylix, 480–470 BC
Athena, detail from a silver kantharos with Theseus in Crete ({{circa}} 440-435 BC), part of the Vassil Bojkov collection, Sofia, Bulgaria
Silver coin showing Athena with Scylla decorated helmet and Heracles fighting the Nemean lion (Heraclea Lucania, 390-340 BC)
Paestan red-figure bell-krater ({{circa}} 330 BC), showing Orestes at Delphi flanked by Athena and Pylades among the Erinyes and priestesses of Apollo, with the Pythia sitting behind them on her tripod
Attic black-figure exaleiptron of the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus ({{circa}} 570–560 BC) by the C Painter{{sfn|Aghion|Barbillon|Lissarrague|1996|page=193}}
Attic red-figure kylix of Athena Promachos holding a spear and standing beside a Doric column ({{circa}} 500-490 BC)
Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the Athena statue from the Aphaea temple at Aegina, {{circa|490}} BC (from the exposition "Bunte Götter" by the Munich Glyptothek)
The Mourning Athena relief ({{circa}} 470-460 BC){{sfn|Palagia|Pollitt|1996|page=32}}{{sfn|Aghion|Barbillon|Lissarrague|1996|page=193}}
Attic red-figure kylix showing Athena slaying the Gigante Enceladus ({{circa}} 550–500 BC)
Relief of Athena and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus (?) from the Gigantomachy Frieze on the Pergamon Altar (early second century BC)
Classical mosaic from a villa at Tusculum, 3rd century AD, now at Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican
Athena portrait by Eukleidas on a tetradrachm from Syracuse, Sicily c. 400 BC
Mythological scene with Athena (left) and Herakles (right), on a stone palette of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, India
Atena farnese, Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, {{circa}} 430 AD, Museo Archeologico, Naples
thumb|upright|Athena (2nd century BC) in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Pallas and the Centaur ({{circa}} 1482) by Sandro Botticelli
Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue (1502) by Andrea Mantegna{{sfn|Brown|2007|page=1}}{{sfn|Deacy|2008|page=145}}{{sfn|Aghion|Barbillon|Lissarrague|1996|pages=193–194}}
Athena Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus ({{circa}} 1555–1560) by Paris Bordone
Minerva Victorious over Ignorance ({{circa}} 1591) by Bartholomeus Spranger
Maria de Medici (1622) by Peter Paul Rubens, showing her as the incarnation of Athena{{sfn|Deacy|2008|page=148}}
Minerva Protecting Peace from Mars (1629) by Peter Paul Rubens
Pallas Athena ({{circa}} 1655) by Rembrandt
Minerva Revealing Ithaca to Ulysses (fifteenth century) by Giuseppe Bottani
Minerva and the Triumph of Jupiter (1706) by René-Antoine Houasse
The Combat of Mars and Minerva (1771) by Joseph-Benoît Suvée
Minerva Fighting Mars (1771) by Jacques-Louis David
Minerva of Peace mosaic in the Library of Congress
Athena on the Great Seal of California

The myth of the Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the Iliad, but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria, a lost poem of the Epic Cycle, which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles).