Acid–base reaction

acid-base reactionacid-baseacid-base chemistryArrhenius baseAcid-base reactionsacid-base theoryacid–baseAcid-base reaction theoriesArrheniusacid–base reactions
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.wikipedia
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Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory

Brønsted acidBrønsted–Lowry acidBrønsted base
Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems; these are called the acid–base theories, for example, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

Oxyacid

oxoacid2-oxo acid2-oxoacid
Since Lavoisier's knowledge of strong acids was mainly restricted to oxoacids, such as (nitric acid) and (sulfuric acid), which tend to contain central atoms in high oxidation states surrounded by oxygen, and since he was not aware of the true composition of the hydrohalic acids (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI), he defined acids in terms of their containing oxygen, which in fact he named from Greek words meaning "acid-former" (from the Greek οξυς (oxys) meaning "acid" or "sharp" and γεινομαι (geinomai) meaning "engender").
Under Lavoisier's original theory, all acids contained oxygen, which was named from the Greek ὀξύς (oxys: acid, sharp) and the root -γενής (-genes: creator).

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.
For a substance to be classified as an Arrhenius base, it must produce hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution.

Svante Arrhenius

Svante August ArrheniusArrheniusArrhenius, Svante August
The first modern definition of acids and bases in molecular terms was devised by Svante Arrhenius.
Arrhenius' contributions to science are memorialized by the Arrhenius equation, Arrhenius acid, lunar crater Arrhenius, Martian crater Arrhenius, the mountain of Arrheniusfjellet, and the Arrhenius Labs at Stockholm University.

Acid

acidicacidityacids
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.
In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.
In the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, an acid-base reaction involves a transfer of protons (H + ) from one species (the acid) to another (the base).

Aqueous solution

aqueouswater solubilityaqueous solutions
A hydrogen theory of acids, it followed from his 1884 work with Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald in establishing the presence of ions in aqueous solution and led to Arrhenius receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903.
Aqueous solution is water with a pH of 7.0 where the hydrogen ions (H + ) and hydroxide ions (OH − ) are in Arrhenius balance (10 −7 ).

Protonation

protonatedprotonateprotonating
This causes the protonation of water, or the creation of the hydronium (H 3 O + ) ion. The Brønsted–Lowry definition, formulated in 1923, independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted in Denmark and Martin Lowry in England, is based upon the idea of protonation of bases through the deprotonation of acids – that is, the ability of acids to "donate" hydrogen ions (H + )—otherwise known as protons—to bases, which "accept" them.
Protonation and deprotonation (removal of a proton) occur in most acid–base reactions; they are the core of most acid–base reaction theories.

Sodium hydroxide

caustic sodaNaOHsodium
For example, the reaction of hydrochloric acid, HCl, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solutions produces a solution of sodium chloride, NaCl, and some additional water molecules.
Such acid-base reactions can also be used for titrations.

Deprotonation

deprotonateddeprotonatedeprotonates
The Brønsted–Lowry definition, formulated in 1923, independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted in Denmark and Martin Lowry in England, is based upon the idea of protonation of bases through the deprotonation of acids – that is, the ability of acids to "donate" hydrogen ions (H + )—otherwise known as protons—to bases, which "accept" them.
Deprotonation (or dehydronation) is the removal (transfer) of a proton (or hydron, or hydrogen cation), (H + ) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.

Conjugate acid

conjugate baseconjugateconjugate bases
The removal of a hydrogen ion from an acid produces its conjugate base, which is the acid with a hydrogen ion removed.
A cation can be a conjugate acid, and an anion can be a conjugate base, depending on which substance is involved and which acid–base theory is the viewpoint.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
For example, consider what happens when acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, dissolves in liquid ammonia.
In the context of acid-base reactions, the abbreviation HAc is sometimes used, where Ac in this case is a symbol for acetate (rather than acetyl).

Hydrochloric acid

HClhydrochloricmuriatic acid
For example, the reaction of hydrochloric acid, HCl, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solutions produces a solution of sodium chloride, NaCl, and some additional water molecules.
Numerous products can be produced with hydrochloric acid in normal acid-base reactions, resulting in inorganic compounds.

Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted

J. N. BrønstedBrønstedBronsted acid-base catalyst
The Brønsted–Lowry definition, formulated in 1923, independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted in Denmark and Martin Lowry in England, is based upon the idea of protonation of bases through the deprotonation of acids – that is, the ability of acids to "donate" hydrogen ions (H + )—otherwise known as protons—to bases, which "accept" them.
In 1906 he published the first of his many papers on electron affinity, and, simultaneously with the English chemist Thomas Martin Lowry, he introduced the protonic theory of acid-base reactions in 1923.

Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton LewisG. N. LewisLewis
Gilbert N. Lewis wrote in 1938, "To restrict the group of acids to those substances that contain hydrogen interferes as seriously with the systematic understanding of chemistry as would the restriction of the term oxidizing agent to substances containing oxygen."
In 1923, he formulated the electron-pair theory of acid–base reactions.

Redox

oxidationoxidizedreduction
This defined the concept of redox (oxidation-reduction) as a special case of acid–base reactions
The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, similar to the acid–base reaction.

Alkali

alkalinealkalisalkalinity
An acid–alkali reaction is a special case of an acid–base reaction, where the base used is also an alkali.
This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base, and they are still among the most common bases.

Albert Fredrick Ottomar Germann

Albert F.O. Germann
Albert F.O. Germann, working with liquid phosgene, formulated the solvent-based theory in 1925, thereby generalizing the Arrhenius definition to cover aprotic solvents.
His goal was to develop a solvent-system definition of acids and bases that would apply to compounds dissolved in solvents such as phosgene.

Mikhail Usanovich

Mikhail Usanovich developed a general theory that does not restrict acidity to hydrogen-containing compounds, but his approach, published in 1938, was even more general than Lewis theory.
He is famous for his generalized acid-base theory.

Acid–base titration

acid-base titrationacid-base titrimetryacidimetry
A pH indicator is used to monitor the progress of the acid–base reaction.

Hydron (chemistry)

H + hydronproton
The hydron itself is crucial in more general Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, which extends the concept of acid–base chemistry beyond aqueous solutions.

Håkon Flood

Professor Flood was one of the pioneers of molten salt chemistry and, together with Hermann Lux, is known for the Lux-Flood theory of acid-base reactions.

HSAB theory

hardsofthard acid
In 1963, Ralph Pearson proposed a qualitative concept known as the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases principle.

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
It can be used to determine pH.