A report on Ammonia and Acid

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Svante Arrhenius
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Acetic acid, a weak acid, donates a proton (hydrogen ion, highlighted in green) to water in an equilibrium reaction to give the acetate ion and the hydronium ion. Red: oxygen, black: carbon, white: hydrogen.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Hydrochloric acid (in beaker) reacting with ammonia fumes to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
This is an ideal titration curve for alanine, a diprotic amino acid. Point 2 is the first equivalent point where the amount of NaOH added equals the amount of alanine in the original solution.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Carbonated water (H2CO3 aqueous solution) is commonly added to soft drinks to make them effervesce.
Household ammonia
Basic structure of an amino acid.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a carboxylic acid
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital that can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3).

- Acid

It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. Perfectly dry ammonia gas will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride gas; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

10 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

Base (chemistry)

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In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Ammonia fumes from aqueous ammonium hydroxide (in test tube) reacting with hydrochloric acid (in beaker) to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
Sodium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide

All definitions agree that bases are substances which react with acids as originally proposed by G.-F. Rouelle in the mid-18th century.

However, there are also other Brønsted bases which accept protons, such as aqueous solutions of ammonia (NH3) or its organic derivatives (amines).

The international pictogram for corrosive chemicals.

Corrosive substance

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One that will damage or destroy other substances with which it comes into contact by means of a chemical reaction.

One that will damage or destroy other substances with which it comes into contact by means of a chemical reaction.

The international pictogram for corrosive chemicals.
The international transport pictogram for corrosives.

They can be acids, oxidizers, or bases.

Some concentrated weak bases, such as ammonia when anhydrous or in a concentrated solution

Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide

Nitric acid

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Inorganic compound with the formula HNO3.

Inorganic compound with the formula HNO3.

Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Two major resonance representations of HNO3
Nitric acid in a laboratory

Dilute nitric acid behaves as a typical acid in its reaction with most metals.

Upon adding a base such as ammonia, the color turns orange.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.

Sulfuric acid

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Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.
Solid state structure of the [D3SO4]+ ion present in [D3SO4]+[SbF6]−, synthesized by using DF in place of HF. (see text)
Rio Tinto with its highly acidic water
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper red and chars it instantly, demonstrating both the strong acidic nature and dehydrating property.
An acidic drain cleaner can be used to dissolve grease, hair and even tissue paper inside water pipes.
John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, or sulfur trioxide, the anhydride of sulfuric acid.
Drops of 98% sulfuric acid char a piece of tissue paper instantly. Carbon is left after the dehydration reaction staining the paper black.
Superficial chemical burn caused by two 98% sulfuric acid splashes (forearm skin)
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Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry.

In common with other corrosive acids and alkali, it readily decomposes proteins and lipids through amide and ester hydrolysis upon contact with living tissues, such as skin and flesh.

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid

Salt (chemistry)

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Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid
Edge-on view of portion of crystal structure of hexamethyleneTTF/TCNQ charge transfer salt.
Solid lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4)

Salts of strong acids and strong bases ("strong salts") are non-volatile and often odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases ("weak salts") may smell like the conjugate acid (e.g., acetates like acetic acid (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide (almonds)) or the conjugate base (e.g., ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions.

A base and an acid, e.g., NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

A burette and Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask) being used for an acid–base titration.

Titration

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Common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte (a substance to be analyzed).

Common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte (a substance to be analyzed).

A burette and Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask) being used for an acid–base titration.
Analysis of soil samples by titration.
A typical titration curve of a diprotic acid titrated with a strong base. Shown here is oxalic acid titrated with sodium hydroxide. Both equivalence points are visible.
Methyl orange
Phenolphthalein, a commonly used indicator in acid and base titration.
Color of iodometric titration mixture before (left) and after (right) the end point.
An elementary pH meter that can be used to monitor titration reactions.
A titration is demonstrated to secondary school students.

In an acid–base titration, the titration curve represents the strength of the corresponding acid and base.

Kjeldahl method: a measure of nitrogen content in a sample. Organic nitrogen is digested into ammonia with sulfuric acid and potassium sulfate. Finally, ammonia is back titrated with boric acid and then sodium carbonate.

Amide formation

Amine

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In organic chemistry, amines (, UK also ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

In organic chemistry, amines (, UK also ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

Amide formation

Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia (NH3), wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines).

Because amines are basic, they neutralize acids to form the corresponding ammonium salts R3NH+.

A range of industrial catalysts in pellet form

Catalysis

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Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst.

Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst.

A range of industrial catalysts in pellet form
An air filter that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide at room temperature. It can also remove formaldehyde from the air.
Generic potential energy diagram showing the effect of a catalyst in a hypothetical exothermic chemical reaction X + Y to give Z. The presence of the catalyst opens a different reaction pathway (shown in red) with a lower activation energy. The final result and the overall thermodynamics are the same.
The microporous molecular structure of the zeolite ZSM-5 is exploited in catalysts used in refineries
Zeolites are extruded as pellets for easy handling in catalytic reactors.
Left: Partially caramelized cube sugar, Right: burning cube sugar with ash as catalyst
levofloxaxin synthesis

For example, in the Haber process, finely divided iron serves as a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen.

In the 1880s, Wilhelm Ostwald at Leipzig University started a systematic investigation into reactions that were catalyzed by the presence of acids and bases, and found that chemical reactions occur at finite rates and that these rates can be used to determine the strengths of acids and bases.

Protonation

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Fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes.

Fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes.

the protonation of ammonia in the formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia and hydrogen chloride:

The rate of protonation is related to the acidity of the protonating species: protonation by weak acids is slower than protonation of the same base by strong acids.

CO2 produced as a waste product of the oxidation of sugars in the mitochondria reacts with water in a reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase to form H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with the cation H+ and anion HCO3−. It is then carried to the lung, where the reverse reaction occurs and CO2 gas is released. In the kidney (left), cells (green) lining the proximal tubule conserve bicarbonate by transporting it from the glomerular filtrate in the lumen (yellow) of the nephron back into the blood (red). The exact stoichiometry in the kidney is omitted for simplicity.

Bicarbonate

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Intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

Intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

CO2 produced as a waste product of the oxidation of sugars in the mitochondria reacts with water in a reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase to form H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with the cation H+ and anion HCO3−. It is then carried to the lung, where the reverse reaction occurs and CO2 gas is released. In the kidney (left), cells (green) lining the proximal tubule conserve bicarbonate by transporting it from the glomerular filtrate in the lumen (yellow) of the nephron back into the blood (red). The exact stoichiometry in the kidney is omitted for simplicity.
Reference ranges for blood tests, comparing blood content of bicarbonate (shown in blue at right) with other constituents.

These shift the pH upward until in certain circumstances the degree of alkalinity can become toxic to some organisms or can make other chemical constituents such as ammonia toxic.

When heated or exposed to an acid such as acetic acid (vinegar), sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide.