A report on AcidTitration and Ammonia

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid
A burette and Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask) being used for an acid–base titration.
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Svante Arrhenius
Analysis of soil samples by titration.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Acetic acid, a weak acid, donates a proton (hydrogen ion, highlighted in green) to water in an equilibrium reaction to give the acetate ion and the hydronium ion. Red: oxygen, black: carbon, white: hydrogen.
A typical titration curve of a diprotic acid titrated with a strong base. Shown here is oxalic acid titrated with sodium hydroxide. Both equivalence points are visible.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Hydrochloric acid (in beaker) reacting with ammonia fumes to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
Methyl orange
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
This is an ideal titration curve for alanine, a diprotic amino acid. Point 2 is the first equivalent point where the amount of NaOH added equals the amount of alanine in the original solution.
Phenolphthalein, a commonly used indicator in acid and base titration.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Carbonated water (H2CO3 aqueous solution) is commonly added to soft drinks to make them effervesce.
Color of iodometric titration mixture before (left) and after (right) the end point.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Basic structure of an amino acid.
An elementary pH meter that can be used to monitor titration reactions.
Household ammonia
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a carboxylic acid
A titration is demonstrated to secondary school students.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital that can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3).

- Acid

In an acid–base titration, the titration curve represents the strength of the corresponding acid and base.

- Titration

It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. Perfectly dry ammonia gas will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride gas; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.

- Ammonia

Kjeldahl method: a measure of nitrogen content in a sample. Organic nitrogen is digested into ammonia with sulfuric acid and potassium sulfate. Finally, ammonia is back titrated with boric acid and then sodium carbonate.

- Titration

The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH), the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulfuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium hexachloroplatinate, [NH4]2[PtCl6].

- Ammonia

Neutralization is the basis of titration, where a pH indicator shows equivalence point when the equivalent number of moles of a base have been added to an acid.

- Acid
Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid

1 related topic with Alpha


Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.

Sulfuric acid

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Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.
Solid state structure of the [D3SO4]+ ion present in [D3SO4]+[SbF6]−, synthesized by using DF in place of HF. (see text)
Rio Tinto with its highly acidic water
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper red and chars it instantly, demonstrating both the strong acidic nature and dehydrating property.
An acidic drain cleaner can be used to dissolve grease, hair and even tissue paper inside water pipes.
John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, or sulfur trioxide, the anhydride of sulfuric acid.
Drops of 98% sulfuric acid char a piece of tissue paper instantly. Carbon is left after the dehydration reaction staining the paper black.
Superficial chemical burn caused by two 98% sulfuric acid splashes (forearm skin)

In particular, "10 M" sulfuric acid (the modern equivalent of chamber acid, used in many titrations), is prepared by slowly adding 98% sulfuric acid to an equal volume of water, with good stirring: the temperature of the mixture can rise to 80 °C (176 °F) or higher.

Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry.

In common with other corrosive acids and alkali, it readily decomposes proteins and lipids through amide and ester hydrolysis upon contact with living tissues, such as skin and flesh.