Acne

acne vulgariscystic acneblemishesAcne proneAcne scarringacne scarspockmarksevere acnewhiteheada'''cne
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.wikipedia
748 Related Articles

Benzoyl peroxide

dibenzoyl peroxideAcetoxylbenzoperoxide
Treatments applied directly to the affected skin, such as azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid, are commonly used.
As a medication, it is used to treat mild to moderate acne.

Isotretinoin

13-cis retinoic acid13-cis-retinoic acidAccutane
Isotretinoin pills are usually reserved for severe acne due to greater potential side effects. Frequently used topical retinoids include adapalene, isotretinoin, retinol, tazarotene, and tretinoin.
Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.

Cutibacterium acnes

P. acnesbacteria that causes acneC. acnes
Another frequent factor is excessive growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin.
Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is the relatively slow-growing, typically aerotolerant anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium (rod) linked to the skin condition of acne; it can also cause chronic blepharitis and endophthalmitis, the latter particularly following intraocular surgery.

Pimple

pimplespimple-likespots
It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring.
Pimples can be treated by acne medications, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatories prescribed by a physician, or various over the counter remedies purchased at a pharmacy.

Salicylic acid

salicylatesalicylatessalicyclic acid
Treatments applied directly to the affected skin, such as azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid, are commonly used.
In addition to serving as an important active metabolite of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which acts in part as a prodrug to salicylic acid, it is probably best known for its use as a key ingredient in topical anti-acne products.

XYY syndrome

47,XYYXYYxyy karyotype
Severe acne may be associated with XYY syndrome.
They may include being taller than average, acne, and an increased risk of learning problems.

Cyst

cystscysticencyst
Large nodules were previously referred to as cysts, and the term nodulocystic has been used in the medical literature to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne.
Acne cyst – Pseudocysts associated with cystic acne - an inflammatory nodule with or without an associated epidermoid inclusion cyst

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSpolycystic ovariespolycystic ovarian syndrome
Medical conditions that commonly cause a high-androgen state, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and androgen-secreting tumors, can cause acne in affected individuals.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.

Menstruation

periodmensesmenstruating
Hormonal activity, such as occurs during menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne.
Common signs and symptoms include acne, tender breasts, bloating, feeling tired, irritability, and mood changes.

Anabolic steroid

anabolic steroidssteroidsanabolic-androgenic steroid
Acne can be a side effect of testosterone replacement therapy or of anabolic steroid use.
These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage (mainly with most oral AAS), and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEA5-Dehydroepiandrosteronedehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
Several hormones have been linked to acne, including the androgens testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); high levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have also been associated with worsened acne.
DHEA and other adrenal androgens such as androstenedione, although relatively weak androgens, are responsible for the androgenic effects of adrenarche, such as early pubic and axillary hair growth, adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of hair and skin, and mild acne.

Premenstrual syndrome

PMSpremenstrual stress syndromepremenstrual tension
While the connection between acne and stress has been debated, some research indicates that increased severity is associated with high stress levels in certain contexts such as hormonal changes seen in premenstrual syndrome.
Common symptoms include acne, tender breasts, bloating, feeling tired, irritability, and mood changes.

Keloid

keloidskeloid scarskeloid scar
Hypertrophic scars remain within the original margins of the wound, whereas keloid scars can form scar tissue outside of these borders.
They can occur as a result of severe acne or chickenpox scarring, infection at a wound site, repeated trauma to an area, excessive skin tension during wound closure or a foreign body in a wound.

Comedo

blackheadcomedonescomedone
It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring.
A comedo can be open (blackhead) or closed by skin (whitehead) and occur with or without acne.

Hidradenitis suppurativa

suppurative hidradenitis
invertō, "upside down") and acne rosacea (rosa, "rose-colored" + -āceus, "forming") are not true forms of acne and respectively refer to the skin conditions hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and rosacea.
This is historically the first classification system proposed, and is still in use for the classification of patients with skin/dermatologic diseases (i.e., psoriasis, HS, acne).

Sebaceous gland

sebumsebaceous glandssebaceous
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Several related medical conditions involve sebum—including acne, sebaceous cysts, hyperplasia, and sebaceous adenoma.

Adrenarche

Higher amounts of DHEA-S are secreted during adrenarche (a stage of puberty), and this leads to an increase in sebum production.
Adrenarche is an early stage in sexual maturation that happens in some higher primates and in humans typically peaks at around 10 to 14 years of age and is eventually involved in the development of pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne.

Lithium (medication)

lithiumlithium saltslithium salt
Several medications can worsen pre-existing acne, with examples being lithium, hydantoin, isoniazid, glucocorticoids, iodides, bromides, and testosterone.
Acne

Rosacea

acne rosaceagranulomatous rosaceaphymatous rosacea
invertō, "upside down") and acne rosacea (rosa, "rose-colored" + -āceus, "forming") are not true forms of acne and respectively refer to the skin conditions hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and rosacea.
Some acne and wrinkle treatments reported to cause rosacea include microdermabrasion and chemical peels, as well as high dosages of isotretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
Several medications can worsen pre-existing acne, with examples being lithium, hydantoin, isoniazid, glucocorticoids, iodides, bromides, and testosterone.
These include adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of skin and hair, acne, pubarche (appearance of pubic hair), axillary hair (armpit hair), growth spurt, accelerated bone maturation, and facial hair.

Chloracne

Chloracne, due to exposure to certain chemicals, may look very similar to acne vulgaris.
Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenated aromatic compounds, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans.

Retinoid

retinoids9-cis-retinoic acidoral retinoid
Antibiotics and retinoids are available in formulations that are applied to the skin and taken by mouth for the treatment of acne.
Common skin conditions treated by retinoids include acne and psoriasis.

Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin

Benzoyl peroxide may be paired with a topical antibiotic or retinoid such as benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide/adapalene, respectively.
Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin is a topical gel used for the treatment of acne.

Tretinoin

all-trans retinoic acidall-''trans'' retinoic acidall-trans-retinoic acid
Frequently used topical retinoids include adapalene, isotretinoin, retinol, tazarotene, and tretinoin.
Tretinoin, also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is medication used for the treatment of acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Acne scars are caused by inflammation within the dermal layer of skin and are estimated to affect 95% of people with acne vulgaris.
Acne vulgaris