Acoustics

acousticacousticianacousticalacousticallyacoustical datasonicacousticiansHistory of acousticsacoustic capabilitiesacoustic properties
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.wikipedia
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Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively.
Acoustics, the science of sound, starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC, who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments.

Sound

audiosound wavesound waves
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer.

Harmonic

harmonicsflageoletharmonic frequencies
In the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras wanted to know why some combinations of musical sounds seemed more beautiful than others, and he found answers in terms of numerical ratios representing the harmonic overtone series on a string.
The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields.

Robert Bruce Lindsay

R. B. LindsayR. Bruce Lindsay Lindsay
Robert Bruce Lindsay's 'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
Robert Bruce Lindsay (1 January 1900 – 2 March 1985) was an American physicist and physics professor, known for his prolific authorship of physics books in acoustics, and historical and philosophical analyses of physics.

Frequency

frequenciesperiodperiodic
Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively.
In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics, acoustics, and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter \nu or ν (nu) (see e.g. Planck's formula).

Physical acoustics

Meanwhile, Newton (1642–1727) derived the relationship for wave velocity in solids, a cornerstone of physical acoustics (Principia, 1687).
Physical acoustics is the area of acoustics and physics that studies interactions of acoustic waves with a gaseous, liquid or solid medium on macro- and micro-levels.

Marin Mersenne

MersenneMersenne, MarinFather Mersenne
Mainly Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) but also Marin Mersenne (1588–1648), independently, discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings (completing what Pythagoras and Pythagoreans had started 2000 years earlier).
. He also developed Mersenne's laws, which describe the harmonics of a vibrating string (such as may be found on guitars and pianos), and his seminal work on music theory, Harmonie universelle, for which he is referred to as the "father of acoustics".

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society.
Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record).

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Classical physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognised and well-developed before the beginning of the 20th century—classical mechanics, acoustics, optics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism.

Speech

spokenspeakingspeech communication
Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Some conduct basic research to advance our knowledge of the perception (e.g. hearing, psychoacoustics or neurophysiology) of speech, music and noise.
Speech is the subject of study for linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, psychology, computer science, speech pathology, otolaryngology, and acoustics.

Loudness

volumeloudBlare
The loudness of these disturbances is related to the sound pressure level (SPL) which is measured on a logarithmic scale in decibels.
In acoustics, loudness is the subjective perception of sound pressure.

Reflection (physics)

reflectionreflectedreflective
This interaction can be described as either a diffraction, interference or a reflection or a mix of the three.
In acoustics, reflection causes echoes and is used in sonar.

Spectrum analyzer

spectrum analyserspectral analysisspectrum analysis
Analytic instruments such as the spectrum analyzer facilitate visualization and measurement of acoustic signals and their properties.
The input signal that most common spectrum analyzers measure is electrical; however, spectral compositions of other signals, such as acoustic pressure waves and optical light waves, can be considered through the use of an appropriate transducer.

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

Lord RayleighRayleighJohn Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
In the nineteenth century the major figures of mathematical acoustics were Helmholtz in Germany, who consolidated the field of physiological acoustics, and Lord Rayleigh in England, who combined the previous knowledge with his own copious contributions to the field in his monumental work The Theory of Sound (1877).
Rayleigh's textbook The Theory of Sound (1877) is still used today by acousticians and engineers.

Aeroacoustics

aero-acousticsLandau–Lifshitz aeroacoustic equationLighthill equation
Aeroacoustics is the study of noise generated by air movement, for instance via turbulence, and the movement of sound through the fluid air.
Aeroacoustics is a branch of acoustics that studies noise generation via either turbulent fluid motion or aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces.

Acoustical Society of America

ASAAcoustical SocietyAmerican Acoustic Society
These subdisciplines are a slightly modified list from the PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) coding used by the Acoustical Society of America.
The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) is an international scientific society founded in 1929 dedicated to generating, disseminating and promoting the knowledge of acoustics and its practical applications.

Structural acoustics

flexural wavesstructural acousticvibro-acoustics
Other acoustic scientists advance understanding of how sound is affected as it moves through environments, e.g. Underwater acoustics, Architectural acoustics or Structural acoustics.
The field of structural acoustics can be closely related to a number of other fields of acoustics including noise, transduction, underwater acoustics, and physical acoustics.

Music

audiomusicalPop
Some conduct basic research to advance our knowledge of the perception (e.g. hearing, psychoacoustics or neurophysiology) of speech, music and noise.
Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived.

Mechanical wave

mechanical wavesmechanicalelastic
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

Bioacoustics

bioacousticbioacousticalacoustic biodiversity
Bioacoustics is the scientific study of the hearing and calls of animal calls, as well as how animals are affected by the acoustic and sounds of their habitat.
Bioacoustics is a cross-disciplinary science that combines biology and acoustics.

Soundscape

soundscapesNatural Sounds and Night Skies Divisionsoundscaping
Research work now also has a focus on the positive use of sound in urban environments: soundscapes and tranquility.
The idea of soundscape refers to both the natural acoustic environment, consisting of natural sounds, including animal vocalizations, the collective habitat expression of which is now referred to as the biophony, and, for instance, the sounds of weather and other natural elements, now referred to as the geophony; and environmental sounds created by humans, the anthropophony through a sub-set called controlled sound, such as musical composition, sound design, and language, work, and sounds of mechanical origin resulting from use of industrial technology.

Audio Engineering Society

AESAES ConventionJournal of the Audio Engineering Society
It also includes acousticians, audiologists, academics, and those in other disciplines related to audio.

Acoustic wave equation

acoustic waves
There is one fundamental equation that describes sound wave propagation, the acoustic wave equation, but the phenomena that emerge from it are varied and often complex.

Wallace Clement Sabine

Wallace SabineSabineSabine, Wallace Clement Ware
The first such application was Sabine’s groundbreaking work in architectural acoustics, and many others followed.

Outline of acoustics

Acoustics – interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.