Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation
A view of the break-action of a typical double-barreled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen.
Vincent Hancock in the men's skeet finals at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Diagram of various firearm actions
A Gurkha Contingent trooper in Singapore armed with a folding stock pump shotgun
Ruger No. 1 single-shot falling-block rifle with action open
An American marine fires a Benelli M4 shotgun during training in Arta, Djibouti, 23 December 2006
Smith and Wesson M&P revolver
Confederate cavalryman
Barreled action for bolt-action rifle
A United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun during World War II
U.S. M1895 Lee Navy straight-pull rifle
A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, shown with the action open
A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs
A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs
Remington Nylon 66 .22 Rimfire semi-automatic rifle
A modern reproduction of the Winchester M1887 lever-action shotgun
A schematic of the lever-delayed blowback mechanism used in the FAMAS assault rifle
Closeup of MTs255
A Browning A-5 semi-automatic shotgun
A United States Army soldier armed with a Mossberg 500 shotgun
Bond Arms Cowboy Defender .45 Colt/.410 Shotshell Derringer
U.S. Marines fire their shotguns
Loading 12-gauge shells
Two rounds of Fiocchi 12-gauge rubber buckshot
A homemade lupara
A RCMP officer in 2010 armed with a shotgun outfitted to fire beanbag rounds
Barack Obama skeet shooting with a Browning Citori 525 on the range at Camp David

Like rifles, shotguns also come in a range of different action types, both single-shot and repeating.

- Shotgun

Pump actions are predominantly found in shotguns.

- Action (firearms)
Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

5 related topics

Alpha

Colt Single Action Army

Revolver

Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Colt Single Action Army
Firing a Smith & Wesson Model 686 .357 Magnum
A Smith & Wesson Model 1, 2nd issue; a two patent date variety shown next to a period box of .22 Short black powder cartridges
Colt Single Action Army, serial No. 5773, issued to 7th Cavalry during the Indian War period
Smith & Wesson M&P revolver
Details of a Schmidt M1882, showing the hammer, chambers for the ammunition in the cylinder, and the mechanism to rotate the cylinder. Revolver of the Gendarmerie of Vaud, on display at Morges castle museum
An advertisement for Iver Johnson revolvers claimed they were safe enough for children to handle.
The LeMat Percussion Revolver, with 9 revolving chambers firing bullets and a center shotgun barrel firing lead shot, was used by the Confederate troops in the American Civil War.
LeMat Revolver, an unusual pinfire cartridge model
A fixed-cylinder Nagant M1895 with gate open for loading
An IOF .32 top-break revolver
Smith & Wesson Model 1 Third Issue open
A swing-out cylinder revolver.
From Top: Replica of 1849 vintage. .44 Colt Revolving Holster Pistol (Dragoon); Colt Single Action Army Model 1873; Ruger (New Model) Super Blackhawk- Mid and late 20th Century.
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum double-action revolver
Enfield No. 2 Mk I* double-action-only revolver. Note the spurless hammer.
Circuit Judge carbine.
Closeup of MTs255
Mateba Autorevolver
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum revolver
Colt Python .357 Magnum revolvers
Smith & Wesson Model 625 for IPSC shooting
Smith & Wesson Model 625JM, as designed by Jerry Miculek.
Alfa Proj Model Alfa Para 9mm caliber
Taurus .357 Magnum Model 605
Taurus .45 Colt/.410 bore Model 4510 'The Judge'
IOF .32 Revolver in .32 S&W
Colt 1849 Pocket Model, made 1850–1873.
Belgian-made Lefaucheux revolver, c. 1860-1865
A Russian Nagant M1895
A Smith & Wesson Model 29
North American Arms (NAA) mini revolver in .22 LR. It can fold into its own grip for safe belt clip carry.

Though the majority of weapons using a revolver mechanism are handguns, other firearms may also have a revolver action.

These include some models of rifles, shotguns, grenade launchers, and cannons.

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior

Gun barrel

Crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

Crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior
A female worker boring out the barrel of a Lee-Enfield rifle during WWI
The barrel of a 240 mm howitzer in use in 1944
A German Army G22 with fluted barrel
A cartridge being chambered into a Springfield M1903.
Illustration of the various sections of a typical rifle chamber. The back end is to the left, and the front is to the right. — body (purple), shoulder (pink) and neck (green).
Closeup of barrel throat area. The chamber is to the left, and the muzzle is to the right. The freebore (cyan) and leade (dark grey) transition into rifled bore (pale grey), and the comparison between freebore diameter vs. rifling groove and land diameter.
The inside of a Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore tank gun (seen from the muzzle) of a Leopard 2A4
Muzzle of a SIG 550 rifle, equipped with a birdcage-type flash suppressor
Various types of shotgun chokes
Muzzle blast modulated by an A2-style flash suppressor
Production steps in the cold-hammer forging process to produce the barrels for a double-barrelled shotgun

In most firearms (rifles, shotguns, machine guns and pistols), the chamber is an integral part of the barrel, often made by simply reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel.

The act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions.

A modern round consists of the following: 1. bullet, as the projectile; 2. cartridge case, which holds all parts together; 3. propellant, for example gunpowder or cordite; 4. rim, which provides the extractor on the firearm a place to grip the casing to remove it from the chamber once fired; 5. primer, which ignites the propellant.

Cartridge (firearms)

Type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile , a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

Type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile , a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

A modern round consists of the following: 1. bullet, as the projectile; 2. cartridge case, which holds all parts together; 3. propellant, for example gunpowder or cordite; 4. rim, which provides the extractor on the firearm a place to grip the casing to remove it from the chamber once fired; 5. primer, which ignites the propellant.
A variety of rifle cartridges: (1).17 HM2 (2).17 HMR (3).22LR (4).22 Win Mag R/F.22 WMR (5).17/23 SMc (6)5mm/35 SMc (7).22 Hornet (8).223 Remington (9).223 WSSM (10).243 Win (11).243 Win Improved (Ackley) (12).25-06 Remington (13).270 Winchester (14).308 Win (15).30-06 Springfield (16).45-70 Government (17).50-90 Sharps
Three straight-walled cartridges (9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W and .45 ACP) on the left, three bottleneck cartridges (FN 5.7×28mm, 5.56×45mm NATO and .300 Winchester Magnum) in the center, and two polymer-cased 12-gauge shotshells on the right.
Smokeless powders used for handloading
A large portion of the energy generated by the propellant is released as a muzzle blast and a bright flash, instead of transferring to the projectile
Percussion caps, the precursor of modern primers
Comparison of primer ignition between centerfire (left two) and rimfire (right) ammunitions
Flash hole profiles on Berdan (left) and Boxer (right) primers.
0.30–30 Winchester case, stages in the drawing process, book; from Hamilton
US Cartridges 1860–1875 
(1) Colt Army 1860 .44 paper cartridge, Civil War 
(2) Colt Thuer-Conversion .44 revolver cartridge, patented 1868 
(3) .44 Henry rim fire cartridge flat 
(4) .44 Henry rim fire cartridge pointed 
(5) Frankford Arsenal .45 Colt cartridge, Benét ignition 
(6) Frankford Arsenal .45 Colt-Schofield cartridge, Benét ignition
Historic British cartridges
Chassepot paper cartridge (1866).
(From Left to Right): A .577 Snider cartridge (1867), a .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge (1871), a later drawn brass .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge, and a .303 British Mk VII SAA Ball cartridge.
French Army Fusil Gras mle 1874 metallic cartridge.
The 8 mm Lebel ammunition, developed in 1886, the first smokeless gunpowder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country.
Fired rimfire (left) and centerfire (right) cartridges. A rimfire firing pin produces a notch at the edge of the rim; a centerfire pin produces a divot in the center of the primer.
Schematic of a rimfire cartridge and its ignition
Slow motion shots (1/1,000,000-second exposures) showing shots and wadding separation after firing from a shotgun.
A 12-gauge Brenneke slug
Two views of intact bean bag round and one view of the projectile
A cutaway showing a Japanese Navy 7.7 mm rimmed rounds as fired by the Type 92 and Type 97 machine guns—copies of Vickers and Lewis designs. The round is effectively interchangeable with .303 British.
A variety of common pistol cartridges. From left to right: 22 LR, .22 WMR, 5.7×28mm, 25 ACP, 7.62×25mm Tokarev, 32 ACP, 380 ACP, 9×19mm Parabellum, 357 SIG, 40 S&W, 45 GAP, 45 ACP, .38 Special, 357 Magnum, 45 Colt
CCI .22LR snake shot loaded with No. 12 shot
An example of caseless ammunition. This disassembled round, the 4.73×33mm, is used in the Heckler & Koch G11 rifle.
Dardick 1500 with trounds
Blank cartridges:
23×152mm cartridge, drill round
9 × 19 mm Mek-Porek
An assortment of snap caps of varying calibers
Rimless .380 ACP semi-automatic cartridge
Rimmed .38 special revolver cartridge

In modern self-loading firearms, the round also enables the action mechanism to use part of the propellant energy (carried by the cartridge itself) and cyclically load new rounds of ammunition to allow quick repeated firing.

The main defining component of the cartridge is the case, which gives the cartridge its shape and serves as the integrating housing for other functional components – it acts as a container for the propellant powders and also serve as a protective shell against the elements; it attaches the projectile either at the front end of the cartridge (bullets for pistols, submachine guns, rifles, and machine guns) or inside of the cartridge (wadding/sabot containing either a number of shot or an individual slug for shotguns), and align it with the barrel bore to the front; it holds the primer at the back end, which receives impact from a firing pin and is responsible for igniting the main propellant charge inside the case.

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle

Bolt action

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle
A Kelbly rifle action bolt that has been oiled to run smoothly.
A US Marine extracts a fired cartridge from an M40A3 using a bolt-action mechanism
A disassembled Karabiner 98k action
Close-up of the action on an SMLE Mk III rifle, showing the bolt head, magazine cut off, and charger clip guide.
Cutaway diagram of the Vetterli rifle's action.
The Mannlicher M95/30
Lee Navy Model 1895
Heym SR 30 (1998), straight pull action. Lock up is achieved by 6 ball bearings around the circumference of the bolt head. This mechanism was originally developed for biathlon rifles.
Merkel RX Helix (2010)

Bolt action is a type of manual firearm action that is operated by directly manipulating the bolt via a bolt handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).

The majority of these firearms are rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and handguns as well.

A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen.

Break action

A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen.
Close-up of an IOF 32 break-action revolver
Smith & Wesson Model 1 Third Issue open

Break action is a type of firearm action in which the barrel or barrels are hinged much like a door and rotate perpendicularly to the bore axis to expose the breech and allow loading and unloading of cartridges.

To get multiple shots requires either multiple barrels or a revolver cylinder; while this is fairly simple for shotguns, with double-barreled shotguns being quite common and even four-barreled designs like the FAMARS Rombo are available, double rifles require very precise alignment of the barrels in order to achieve consistent accuracy.