Active ingredient

active pharmaceutical ingredientactive pharmaceutical ingredientsactive ingredientsactive substanceagentsAPIactive pharmaceutical ingredient (API)active principleagentdrug itself
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active.wikipedia
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Ingredient

ingredientsfood ingredientfood ingredients
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active.
In the pharmaceutical industry, an active ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer.

Biological activity

bioactivebiologically activebioactivity
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active.
When a drug is a complex chemical mixture, this activity is exerted by the substance's active ingredient or pharmacophore but can be modified by the other constituents.

Dosage form

formdosage formsformulation
The dosage form for a pharmaceutical contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), which is the drug itself, and excipients, which are the substances of the tablet, or the liquid the API is suspended in, or other material that is pharmaceutically inert.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.

Excipient

excipientsinactive ingredientsinert
The dosage form for a pharmaceutical contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), which is the drug itself, and excipients, which are the substances of the tablet, or the liquid the API is suspended in, or other material that is pharmaceutically inert. In contrast with the active ingredients, the inactive ingredients are usually called excipients in pharmaceutical contexts.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.

Natural product

naturally occurringnatural productsnatural
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").
Usually, the natural product compound has some form of biological activity and that compound is known as the active principle - such a structure can evolve to become a discovery "lead".

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalsdrug
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active.
The drug may contain a single or multiple active ingredients.

North East of England Process Industry Cluster

NEPICNortheast of England process Industry Cluster
Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster
Aesica, Sterling, Piramal (Northumberland) are companies that perform primary manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients(APIs) to cGMP standards.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug or pesticide that is biologically active.

Chemical substance

chemicalchemicalssubstance
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Salicylic acid

salicylatesalicylatessalicyclic acid
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Willow

willowssallowSalix
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Arecoline

The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Areca nut

betel nutarecanutbetel nuts
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Connotation

connotationsconnotesconnotative
The terms active constituent or active principle are often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

Vehicle

vehiclesvehicularroad vehicle
The main excipient that serves as a medium for conveying the active ingredient is usually called the vehicle.

Petroleum jelly

petrolatumwhite petrolatumparaffin
Petrolatum and mineral oil are common vehicles.

Mineral oil

lube oiloilpetroleum oil
Petrolatum and mineral oil are common vehicles.

Herbalism

herbal medicineherbalistherbal remedies
In phytopharmaceutical or herbal medicine, the active ingredient may be either unknown or may require cofactors in order to achieve therapeutic goals.

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
In phytopharmaceutical or herbal medicine, the active ingredient may be either unknown or may require cofactors in order to achieve therapeutic goals.

Standardization

standardstandardsstandardized
One way manufacturers have attempted to indicate strength is to engage in standardization to a marker compound.

Biomarker

biomarkersmarkerbiological marker
One way manufacturers have attempted to indicate strength is to engage in standardization to a marker compound.

Hypericum perforatum

St John's wortSt. John's wortSt. John’s Wort
For instance, St John's wort is often standardized to the hypericin which is now known not to be the "active ingredient" for antidepressant use.

Hypericin

For instance, St John's wort is often standardized to the hypericin which is now known not to be the "active ingredient" for antidepressant use.

Hyperforin

Other companies standardize to hyperforin or both, although there may be some 24 known possible active constituents.