Acute myeloid leukemia

acute myelogenous leukemiaacute myeloid leukaemiaAMLacute myelocytic leukemiaacute myelogenous leukaemiaacute nonlymphocytic leukemialeucocythemialeukemia, myelocytic, acuteacuteacute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.wikipedia
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Myelodysplastic syndrome

myelodysplasiamyelodysplastic syndromesMDS
Risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndrome, and exposure to the chemical benzene. "Preleukemic" blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), can evolve into AML; the exact risk depends on the type of MDS/MPN.
Some types may develop into acute myeloid leukemia.

Acute leukemia

acute leukaemiaacute
As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.

Febrile neutrophilic dermatosis

Sweet's syndromeSweet syndromeAcute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis
Rarely, Sweet's syndrome, a paraneoplastic inflammation of the skin, can occur with AML.
Approximately 20% of cases are associated with malignancy, predominantly hematological, especially acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

GATA2 deficiency

In a second example, inactivating mutations in one of the two parental GATA2 genes lead to a reduction, i.e. a haploinsufficiency, in the cellular levels of the gene's product, the GATA2 transcription factor, and thereby to a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease, GATA2 deficiency.
The various presentations of GATA2 deficiency include: 1) Monocytopenia and Mycobacterium Avium Complex/Dendritic Cell, Monocyte, B and NK Lymphocyte deficiency (i.e. MonoMAC or MonoMAC/DCML); 2) Emberger syndrome; 3) familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (i.e. familial MDS/AML); 3) chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (i.e. CMML); and 4) other anomalies such as aplastic anemia, chronic neutropenia, and wide-ranging immunological defects.

GATA2

GATA-22
In a second example, inactivating mutations in one of the two parental GATA2 genes lead to a reduction, i.e. a haploinsufficiency, in the cellular levels of the gene's product, the GATA2 transcription factor, and thereby to a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease, GATA2 deficiency.
GATA2 deficiency often begins with seemingly benign abnormalities but if untreated progresses to life-threatening opportunistic infections, virus-induced cancers, lung failure, the myelodysplastic syndrome (i.e. MDS), and/or acute myeloid leukemia, principally acute myeloid leukemia (AML), less commonly chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and rarely a lymphoid leukemia.

Clonal hematopoiesis

The presence of asymptomatic clonal hematopoiesis also raises the risk of transformation into AML to 0.5–1.0% per year.
In a similar vein, other studies using the HUMARA technology had found that hematologic malignancies are clonal diseases even when there is no apparent chromosomal abnormality, and that there are pre-leukemic clonal populations which precede acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

acute promyelocytic leukaemiapromyelocytic leukemiaAcute Promyeloid Leukaemia
Because acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has the highest curability and requires a unique form of treatment, it is important to quickly establish or exclude the diagnosis of this subtype of leukemia.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
Several congenital conditions may increase the risk of leukemia; the most common is probably Down syndrome, which is associated with a 10- to 18-fold increase in the risk of AML.
In particular, acute lymphoblastic leukemia is 20 times more common and the megakaryoblastic form of acute myeloid leukemia (acute megakaryoblastic leukemia), is 500 times more common.

Acute biphenotypic leukaemia

Acute biphenotypic leukemiaB-lineage acute lymphocytic leukemiabiphenotypic acute leukemia
Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (also known as mixed phenotype or biphenotypic acute leukemia) occur when the leukemic cells can not be classified as either myeloid or lymphoid cells, or where both types of cells are present.
Usually the chemotherapy is chosen according to the morphology of the blast (ALL or AML).

Benzene

benzene ringbenzolbenzene rings
Risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndrome, and exposure to the chemical benzene.
In particular, acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (AML & ANLL) is not disputed to be caused by benzene.

Haematopoiesis

hematopoietichematopoiesishaematopoietic
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Mutations in C/EBPα are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Auer rod

Auer rods
In straightforward cases, the presence of certain morphologic features (such as Auer rods) or specific flow cytometry results can distinguish AML from other leukemias; however, in the absence of such features, diagnosis may be more difficult.
Auer rods (or Auer bodies) are large, crystalline cytoplasmic inclusion bodies sometimes observed in myeloid blast cells during acute myeloid leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, and high-grade myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative disorders.

RUNX1T1

ETOETO (gene)ETO/MTG8
In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 subtype, the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndrome, and exposure to the chemical benzene.
As chemotherapy affects cell division, tumors with high growth rates (such as acute myelogenous leukemia and the aggressive lymphomas, including Hodgkin's disease) are more sensitive to chemotherapy, as a larger proportion of the targeted cells are undergoing cell division at any time.

Myeloproliferative neoplasm

myeloproliferative diseasemyeloproliferative disordermyeloproliferative disorders
"Preleukemic" blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), can evolve into AML; the exact risk depends on the type of MDS/MPN.
They are related to, and may evolve into, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, although the myeloproliferative diseases on the whole have a much better prognosis than these conditions.

MECOM

EVI1Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 (EVI1) Encoded FactorEVI-1
Overexpression and aberrant expression of EVI1 has been associated with human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and more recently has been shown as a poor prognostic indicator.

Acute erythroid leukemia

erythroleukemiaErythroleukemiasleukemia, erythroblastic, acute
Acute erythroid leukemia is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia (less than 5% of AML cases ) where the myeloproliferation is of erythroblastic precursors.

Myeloid sarcoma

ChloromaGranulocytic sarcomaSarcoma, granulocytic
Rarely, the first sign of leukemia may be the development of a solid leukemic mass or tumor outside of the bone marrow, called a chloroma.
A chloroma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia; in other words, it is a solid collection of leukemic cells occurring outside of the bone marrow.

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

AML-M7megakaryocytic acute leukemia
AMKL is commonly regarded as a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

CD117

c-KitKITproto-oncogene proteins c-kit
Genetic studies may also be performed to look for specific mutations in genes such as FLT3, nucleophosmin, and KIT, which may influence the outcome of the disease.
Activating mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminoma, mast cell disease, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, while inactivating mutations are associated with the genetic defect piebaldism.

Myeloid tissue

myeloidmyeloid lineagemyelogenous
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

Leukemia cutis

The skin is involved about 10% of the time in the form of leukemia cutis.
Leukemia cutis can occur in most forms of leukemia, including chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia.

Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

leukemia
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia that involves a proliferation of CFU-GM myeloblasts and monoblasts.

Chromosome 5

chromosome five5Chromosome 5 (human)
One example would be acute myeloid leukemia (AML).