Adaptive cruise control

autonomous cruise control systemactive cruise controlradar cruise controlSI-CruiseACC systemACCacceleration/brakingAdaptive cruise control systemautomatic distance regulatorautomotive cruise control radar
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is an available cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead.wikipedia
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Lane centering

Propilot Assistcar centered in the laneHonda Sensing
When combined with another driver assist feature such lane centering then the vehicle is considered a Level 2 autonomous car.
Together with adaptive cruise control this feature may allow unassisted driving for some seconds.

Self-driving car

autonomous cardriverless carself-driving cars
When combined with another driver assist feature such lane centering then the vehicle is considered a Level 2 autonomous car. Vehicles with autonomous cruise control are considered a Level 1 autonomous car, as defined by SAE International.
Level 1 ("hands on"): The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls speed; and Parking Assistance, where steering is automated while speed is under manual control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of level 1 self-driving.

Vehicular automation

autonomous vehicleautonomous vehiclesautonomous
ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of intelligent cars.
Adaptive cruise control

Renault Vel Satis

Vel SatisVel Statis
2001: Renault introduced ACC on the Renault Vel Satis (supplied by Bosch )
The car was also Renault's flagship model, and the first Renault to be offered with Adaptive cruise control as supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH.

Mitsubishi Diamante

DiamanteSigma/Diamante
1995: Mitsubishi Diamante introduced laser "Preview Distance Control". This system controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, not by applying the brakes.
The world's first autonomous cruise control system labelled "Preview Distance Control";

Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221)

W221W221 S-ClassMercedes-Benz S-Class
2005: Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221) upgraded ACC to completely halt the car if necessary (now called "Distronic Plus" on E-Class and most Mercedes sedans.
Brake Assist and (for vehicles with the optional Distronic Plus system) Brake Assist Plus: a system that recognises emergency braking and increases the braking force (according to Mercedes-Benz 90% of drivers are too hesitant with the brakes in an emergency). Brake Assist Plus uses the radar to apportion brake pressure based on sensor data and measured distance between the car and vehicles or other objects in front.

Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220)

Mercedes-Benz S500S-ClassS430
1999: Mercedes introduced "Distronic", the first radar-assisted ACC, on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220) and the CL-Class.
As with each new S-Class, the W220 was technologically advanced at the time of its launch, bringing in new innovations such as Airmatic air suspension, Active Ventilated Seats (which used miniature fans in the seats to move air through perforations), keyless entry and ignition, Distronic: the first worldwide radar-assisted Autonomous cruise control system, and a cylinder deactivation system called Active Cylinder Control for the S500 and S600 models, which improves fuel consumption and reduces emissions.

Mercedes-Benz CL-Class (C215)

C215 CL-ClassMercedes-Benz CL-ClassC215
1999: Mercedes introduced "Distronic", the first radar-assisted ACC, on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220) and the CL-Class.
C215 was the second car (after the W220 S-Class) with Distronic: the first worldwide radar-assisted Autonomous cruise control system.

Lexus LS

CelsiorLexus LS 430Lexus LS 460
1997: Toyota offered a "laser adaptive cruise control" (lidar) system on the Japanese market Celsior. It controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, not by applying the brakes. 2003: Toyota shifted from laser to radar ACC on the Celsior. The first Lexus Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and a radar-guided pre-collision system appeared on the Lexus LS(XF30) US market facelift.
In August 1997, the first production laser adaptive cruise control on a Toyota vehicle was introduced on the Celsior version (Japan only) It controlled speed only through throttle control and downshifting, but did not apply the brakes.

BMW 5 Series (E60)

BMW 550i (E60)E60 5 SeriesE60
2007: BMW introduced full-speed Active Cruise Control Stop-and-Go on the BMW 5 Series (E60).
Features available in the E60 initially included active cruise control, emergency helpline (BMW Assist), voice control, Bi-Xenon headlights, run-flat tyres, active anti-roll bars and active steering.

Lidar

laser altimeterlaser radarlight detection and ranging
Such systems may use a radar or laser sensor or a camera setup allowing the vehicle to brake when it detects the car is approaching another vehicle ahead, then accelerate when traffic allows it to.
The very first generations of automotive adaptive cruise control systems used only lidar sensors.

Cadillac XLR

XLRCadillac XLR-VXLR-V
2003: Cadillac introduced radar ACC on the Cadillac XLR.
It was the first production Cadillac with radar-based adaptive cruise control (ACC)

Collision avoidance system

forward collision warningpre-collision systemprecrash system
2003: Toyota shifted from laser to radar ACC on the Celsior. The first Lexus Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and a radar-guided pre-collision system appeared on the Lexus LS(XF30) US market facelift. 2005: In the United States, Acura introduced radar ACC integrated with a Collision avoidance system (Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS)) in the model year 2006 Acura RL.
Cars with collision avoidance may also be equipped with adaptive cruise control, using the same forward-looking sensors.

Nissan Cima

CimaCedric CimaNissan Cima Y31
1999: Nissan introduced laser ACC on the Japanese market Nissan Cima.
In 1999, the Cima became the first Nissan with laser adaptive cruise control.

Nissan Fuga

FugaNissan Fuga (Y50)Nissan Fuga Y50
2006: Nissan introduced "Intelligent Cruise Control with Distance Control Assist" on Nissan Fuga. It pushes the gas pedal against the foot when the navigation system observes an unsafe speed. If the Autonomous cruise control system is used, the Distance Control Assistance reduced speed automatically, and warned the driver that with an audible bell sound.
If the Autonomous cruise control system is being used, the Distance Control Assistance will reduce speed automatically, and will warn the driver that an adjustment is being made with an audible bell sound.

Lancia Thesis

Thesis
2002: Lancia introduced radar ACC (by Bosch) on the Lancia Thesis
First Lancia with radar adaptive cruise control (by Bosch).

Volkswagen Phaeton

PhaetonVolkswagen Phaeton W12VW Phaeton
2002: Volkswagen introduced radar ACC, manufactured by Autocruise (now TRW), on the Volkswagen Phaeton.
First Volkswagen with radar adaptive cruise control: automatic distance regulator (ADR).

Audi A8

A8Audi D2 A8Audi A8 W12
2002: Audi introduced radar ACC (Autocruise) on the Audi A8 in late 2002
Full speed range adaptive cruise control ACC Plus, can now brake until stop

Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W222)

W222 S-ClassMercedes-Benz S-ClassMercedes-Maybach S-Class
2013: Mercedes introduced "Distronic Plus with Steering Assist" (traffic jam assist) on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W222)
Distronic Plus with Steering Assist: This radar-based function has now been enhanced by the addition of Steering Assist, which helps drivers to stay centred in their lane by generating the appropriate steering torque when travelling on a straight road and even in gentle bends. The stereo camera recognises lane markings as well as vehicles driving ahead together with their three-dimensional positioning, and relays this information to the electric steering assistance system. When driving at slow speeds, e.g. in congested traffic, Steering Assist can use the vehicle ahead as a means of orientation, enabling semi-autonomous following even when there are no clear lane markings visible. As a result, the system is able to further enhance driving comfort and substantially ease the driver's workload in many traffic situations. DISTRONIC PLUS with Steering Assist can be activated as before with a lever on the steering column in a speed range from 0 – 200 km/h. Any speed between 30 km/h and 200 km/h can be selected as the desired cruising speed. Drivers must keep their hands on the steering wheel at all times even when Steering Assist is activated, as the function only works in bends above a certain, speed-dependent radius.

Acura MDX

MDXsecond generation Acura MDX
2009: ACC and CMBS also became available as optional features in the model year the 2010 Acura MDX Mid Model Change (MMC) and the newly introduced model year 2010 Acura ZDX.
An Advance package became available that included Adaptive Cruise Control, blind spot monitor, Active Damper Suspension, Collision mitigation braking system, wider, Premium Milano leather ventilated seats and auto leveling headlights.

Acura RL

RLAcura 3.5RLAcura RLX
2005: In the United States, Acura introduced radar ACC integrated with a Collision avoidance system (Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS)) in the model year 2006 Acura RL.
For 2006, the Acura RL was also offered in a second trim level, the optional 'Technology Package' which included three new features: adaptive cruise control (ACC), Collision Mitigation Braking System, and Michelin PAX System run-flat tires on unique PAX 235 mm x 460 mm A ("A" for asymmetric) aluminum alloy wheels with unique 245-680R460A Michelin Pilot HX MXM 4 all-season Grand Touring type radials designed for the Michelin PAX System.

Infiniti Q45

Q45Infiniti Q45 Third generation F50Q45 National TV
2001: Infiniti introduced laser "Intelligent Cruise Control" on the 2002 Infiniti Q45 Third generation F50 and 2002 Infiniti QX4.
It was the first Infiniti with laser Autonomous cruise control system.

BMW 7 Series (E38)

E38E38 7 SeriesBMW 750iL
2000: BMW introduced radar "Active Cruise Control" in Europe on the BMW 7 Series - E38.
A radar-based adaptive cruise control (called Active Cruise Control) became available as an option.

Tesla, Inc.

TeslaTesla MotorsTesla Inc.
2014: Tesla introduced autopilot feature to Model S cars, enabling semi-autonomous cruise control.
As of 2017, Autopilot included adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, emergency braking, Autosteer (semi-automated steering), Autopark (parallel and perpendicular parking) and Summon (recalling the vehicle from a parking place).

Lincoln MKS

MKSLincoln MKS ConceptLincoln MKS Limousine
2008: Lincoln introduced radar ACC on the 2009 Lincoln MKS.
The MKS was the first series production Lincoln with radar autonomous cruise control system.