Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addictsaddictiveaddictedaddictaddictionsdrugaddictsdrug-addicted
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.wikipedia
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Alcohol (drug)

alcoholdrinkingdrink
These costs arise from the direct adverse effects of drugs and associated healthcare costs (e.g., emergency medical services and outpatient and inpatient care), long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer from smoking tobacco products, liver cirrhosis and dementia from chronic alcohol consumption, and meth mouth from methamphetamine use), the loss of productivity and associated welfare costs, fatal and non-fatal accidents (e.g., traffic collisions), suicides, homicides, and incarceration, among others.
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.

Nucleus accumbens

nucleus accumbens shellnucleus accumbens coreaccumbal
Two decades of research into ΔFosB's role in addiction have demonstrated that addiction arises, and the associated compulsive behavior intensifies or attenuates, along with the overexpression of ΔFosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens. The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the reinforcing qualities of many forms of stimuli, including naturally reinforcing stimuli like palatable food and sex.
As a whole, the nucleus accumbens has a significant role in the cognitive processing of motivation, aversion, reward (i.e., incentive salience, pleasure, and positive reinforcement), and reinforcement learning (e.g., Pavlovian-instrumental transfer); hence, it has a significant role in addiction. In addition, part of the nucleus accumbens core is centrally involved in the induction of slow-wave sleep.

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
These costs arise from the direct adverse effects of drugs and associated healthcare costs (e.g., emergency medical services and outpatient and inpatient care), long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer from smoking tobacco products, liver cirrhosis and dementia from chronic alcohol consumption, and meth mouth from methamphetamine use), the loss of productivity and associated welfare costs, fatal and non-fatal accidents (e.g., traffic collisions), suicides, homicides, and incarceration, among others.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability (i.e., a high likelihood that long-term or high dose use will lead to compulsive drug use) and high dependence liability (i.e. a high likelihood that withdrawal symptoms will occur when methamphetamine use ceases).

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
The term addiction is misused frequently to refer to other compulsive behaviors or disorders, particularly dependence, in news media.
Substance dependence, also known as drug dependence, is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use. A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.

Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcohol
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. ΔFosB has been implicated in mediating addictions to many different drugs and drug classes, including alcohol, amphetamine and other substituted amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opiates, phenylcyclidine, and propofol, among others.
Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment.

Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. ΔFosB has been implicated in mediating addictions to many different drugs and drug classes, including alcohol, amphetamine and other substituted amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opiates, phenylcyclidine, and propofol, among others.
Nicotine is highly addictive.

Behavioral addiction

addictionnatural rewardaddictive
The term behavioral addiction refers to a compulsion to engage in a natural reward – which is a behavior that is inherently rewarding (i.e., desirable or appealing) – despite adverse consequences.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-substance-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.

Video game addiction

gaming disorderaddictiongaming addiction
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.
Excessive use of video games may have some or all of the symptoms of drug addiction or other proposed psychological addictions.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. Moreover, reward cross-sensitization between amphetamine and sexual activity, meaning that exposure to one increases the desire for both, has been shown to occur preclinically and clinically as a dopamine dysregulation syndrome; ΔFosB expression is required for this cross-sensitization effect, which intensifies with the level of ΔFosB expression. ΔFosB has been implicated in mediating addictions to many different drugs and drug classes, including alcohol, amphetamine and other substituted amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opiates, phenylcyclidine, and propofol, among others. Table 1: Summary of plasticity observed following exposure to drug or natural reinforcers" Consequently, ΔFosB is the key transcription factor involved in addictions to natural rewards (i.e., behavioral addictions) as well; in particular, ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine) and sexual behavior act on similar biomolecular mechanisms to induce ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens and possess bidirectional cross-sensitization effects that are mediated through ΔFosB. This phenomenon is notable since, in humans, a dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by drug-induced compulsive engagement in natural rewards (specifically, sexual activity, shopping, and gambling), has also been observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications.
Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses.

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome

Moreover, reward cross-sensitization between amphetamine and sexual activity, meaning that exposure to one increases the desire for both, has been shown to occur preclinically and clinically as a dopamine dysregulation syndrome; ΔFosB expression is required for this cross-sensitization effect, which intensifies with the level of ΔFosB expression. Table 1: Summary of plasticity observed following exposure to drug or natural reinforcers" Consequently, ΔFosB is the key transcription factor involved in addictions to natural rewards (i.e., behavioral addictions) as well; in particular, ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine) and sexual behavior act on similar biomolecular mechanisms to induce ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens and possess bidirectional cross-sensitization effects that are mediated through ΔFosB. This phenomenon is notable since, in humans, a dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by drug-induced compulsive engagement in natural rewards (specifically, sexual activity, shopping, and gambling), has also been observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications.
It is characterized by self-control problems such as addiction to medication, gambling, or sexual behavior.

Sexual addiction

sex addictionsex addictsex
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.
Animal research has established that compulsive sexual behavior arises from the same transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate drug addiction in laboratory animals; however, sexual addiction is not a clinical diagnosis in either the DSM or ICD medical classifications of diseases and medical disorders.

Executive functions

executive functioncognitive controlexecutive functioning
Cognitive control and stimulus control, which is associated with operant and classical conditioning, represent opposite processes (i.e., internal vs external or environmental, respectively) that compete over the control of an individual's elicited behaviors.
Cognitive control is impaired in addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and a number of other central nervous system disorders.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
Cognitive control and stimulus control, which is associated with operant and classical conditioning, represent opposite processes (i.e., internal vs external or environmental, respectively) that compete over the control of an individual's elicited behaviors.
Positive and negative reinforcement play central roles in the development and maintenance of addiction and drug dependence.

Phencyclidine

PCPangel dustphenylcyclidine
ΔFosB has been implicated in mediating addictions to many different drugs and drug classes, including alcohol, amphetamine and other substituted amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opiates, phenylcyclidine, and propofol, among others.
Adverse effects may include seizures, coma, addiction, and an increased risk of suicide.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the reinforcing qualities of many forms of stimuli, including naturally reinforcing stimuli like palatable food and sex.
The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, and many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release.

Endophenotype

endophenotypiccognitive endophenotypeEndophenotypic Factors
The important effects of endophenotypes are typically not capable of being captured by these methods.
Since then, the concept has expanded to many other fields, such as the study of ADHD, addiction, Alzheimer's disease, obesity and cystic fibrosis.

Propofol

Diprivan2,6-diisopropylphenolMilk of amnesia
ΔFosB has been implicated in mediating addictions to many different drugs and drug classes, including alcohol, amphetamine and other substituted amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opiates, phenylcyclidine, and propofol, among others.
Other serious side effects may include seizures, infections with improper use, addiction, and propofol infusion syndrome with long-term use.

Compulsive behavior

compulsivecompulsioncompulsions
The term behavioral addiction refers to a compulsion to engage in a natural reward – which is a behavior that is inherently rewarding (i.e., desirable or appealing) – despite adverse consequences.
Addiction and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) feature compulsive behavior as core features.

Inhibitory control

impulse controlresponse inhibitioninhibition
Cognitive control, and particularly inhibitory control over behavior, is impaired in both addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Stimulus-driven behavioral responses (i.e., stimulus control) that are associated with a particular rewarding stimulus tend to dominate one's behavior in an addiction.
Inhibitory control is impaired in both addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Child abuse

abuseabusiveabused
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are various forms of maltreatment and household dysfunction experienced in childhood.
It has been discovered that childhood abuse can lead to the addiction of drugs and alcohol in adolescence and adult life.

FOSB

ΔFosBDelta FosBDeltaFosB
DeltaFosB (ΔFosB), a gene transcription factor, is a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions.
The ΔFosB splice variant has been identified as playing a central, crucial (necessary and sufficient) role in the development and maintenance of addiction. ΔFosB overexpression (i.e., an abnormally and excessively high level of ΔFosB expression which produces a pronounced gene-related phenotype) triggers the development of addiction-related neuroplasticity throughout the reward system and produces a behavioral phenotype that is characteristic of an addiction.

Sensitization

central sensitizationsensitisationsensitivity
Table 1: Summary of plasticity observed following exposure to drug or natural reinforcers" Consequently, ΔFosB is the key transcription factor involved in addictions to natural rewards (i.e., behavioral addictions) as well; in particular, ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine) and sexual behavior act on similar biomolecular mechanisms to induce ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens and possess bidirectional cross-sensitization effects that are mediated through ΔFosB. This phenomenon is notable since, in humans, a dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by drug-induced compulsive engagement in natural rewards (specifically, sexual activity, shopping, and gambling), has also been observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications.
For example, cross-sensitization to the neural and behavioral effects of addictive drugs are well characterized, such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects of other stimulants.

Dopaminergic pathways

dopaminergic pathwaydopamine pathwaydopamine pathways
Chronic addictive drug use causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projection.
Dysfunction of these pathways and nuclei may be involved in multiple diseases and disorders such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addiction, and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Self-administration

self-administeredintracranial self-stimulationself-administer
ΔFosB expression in these neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement, while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.
The higher the frequency with which a test animal emits the operant behavior, the more rewarding (and addictive), the test substance is considered.