Adenosine triphosphate

ATPadenosine triphosphate (ATP)adenosine 5'-triphosphateADPdATPenergy adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Adenadenoside triphosphateAdenosine 5' Triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, and chemical synthesis.wikipedia
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Adenosine diphosphate

ADPadenosine diphosphate (ADP)adenosine diphosphate sugars
When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme.
Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD +.

Adenine

AA'''denineadenine nucleotides
From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate.
Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).

Magnesium

MgMg 2+ Mg2+
The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various proteins.
Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA.

Adenosine monophosphate

AMPadenylyladenylate
When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
AMP plays an important role in many cellular metabolic processes, being interconverted to ADP and/or ATP.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells.

Glycolysis

glycolyticglycolytic pathwayEmbden–Meyerhof pathway
ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation.
The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

Oxidative phosphorylation

ATP generationmitochondrial oxidative phosphorylationoxidative
ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation.
Oxidative phosphorylation (UK, US or electron transport-linked phosphorylation) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Polyphosphate

triphosphatesodium polyphosphate(phosphate)n
From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate.
In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in energy storage.

Citric acid cycle

Krebs cycleTCA cycletricarboxylic acid cycle
ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide.

Adenosine

Aadenosine analogAdenoscan
Derivatives of adenosine are widely found in nature and play an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer—as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)—as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

Ion

cationanionions
The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various proteins.
In both inorganic and organic chemistry (including biochemistry), the interaction of water and ions is extremely important; an example is energy that drives the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
ATP production by a non-photosynthetic aerobic eukaryote occurs mainly in the mitochondria, which comprise nearly 25% of the volume of a typical cell.
The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the "energy currency" of cells.

ATP synthase

ATP synthesisATPATPase
Two equivalents of NADH are also produced, which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of additional ATP by ATP synthase.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Energy

energy transferenergiestotal energy
Found in all forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

Phosphoglycerate kinase

Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency3-phosphoglycerate kinasePGK
Glycolysis generates two equivalents of ATP through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by two enzymes, PGK and pyruvate kinase.
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) to ADP producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP :

Electron transport chain

respiratory chainelectron transportmitochondrial respiratory chain
Two equivalents of NADH are also produced, which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of additional ATP by ATP synthase.
This creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that stores energy chemically in the form of highly strained bonds.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, and chemical synthesis.
Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that possesses readily available energy, through two different pathways.

Pyruvate kinase

Glycolysis generates two equivalents of ATP through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by two enzymes, PGK and pyruvate kinase.
It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), yielding one molecule of pyruvate and one molecule of ATP.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation.
Mitochondria provide energy to the eukaryote cell by converting sugars into ATP.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
ATP production by a non-photosynthetic aerobic eukaryote occurs mainly in the mitochondria, which comprise nearly 25% of the volume of a typical cell.
Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.

Ribose

D-riboseribofuranoseribose sugar
From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate.
Phosphorylated derivatives of ribose such as ATP and NADH play central roles in metabolism.

Beta oxidation

beta-oxidationβ-oxidationfatty acid oxidation
ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation.
One significant difference is that oxidation in peroxisomes is not coupled to ATP synthesis.

Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase

succinyl-CoA synthetasesuccinate thiokinasesuccinate-CoA ligase
Every "turn" of the citric acid cycle produces two molecules of carbon dioxide, one equivalent of ATP guanosine triphosphate (GTP) through substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA synthetase, as succinyl- CoA is converted to Succinate, three equivalents of NADH, and one equivalent of FADH 2.
The enzyme facilitates the coupling of this reaction to the formation of a nucleoside triphosphate molecule (either GTP or ATP) from an inorganic phosphate molecule and a nucleoside diphosphate molecule (either GDP or ADP).

Cellular respiration

respirationaerobic respirationaerobic
The overall process of oxidizing glucose to carbon dioxide, the combination of pathways 1 and 2, is known as cellular respiration, produces about 30 equivalents of ATP from each molecule of glucose.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.