A report on Aurangzeb and Adil Shahi dynasty

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
Genealogy of Yusuf Adil Shah
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Ibrahim Adil Shah II
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sultan Ali Adil Shah II hunting a tiger, c 1660
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Chand Bibi, the regent of Bijapur (1580–90)
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Gol Gumbaz
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
A manuscript depicting the ruler of Bijapur in the year 1591, Ibrahim Adil Shah II.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Asar Mahal
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb.

- Adil Shahi dynasty

Aurangzeb proposed to resolve the situation by attacking the dynastic occupants of Golconda (the Qutb Shahis) and Bijapur (the Adil Shahis).

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Residential High Rises in Pune,India

Pune

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Seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra, with an estimated population of 7.4 million It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times.

Seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra, with an estimated population of 7.4 million It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times.

Residential High Rises in Pune,India
The circular Nandi mandapa at the Pataleshwar cave temple built in the Rashtrakuta era (753-982)
Skyscrapers under construction in Pune South
An equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada. He expanded the Maratha Empire in north India c. 1730.
British Government House, Ganesh Khind, Poona (c. 1875)
National Chemical Laboratory
Vetal Hill Panorama, a prominent hill in Pune. Elevation c. 800 m
Tulshibaug Lane in Pune, a busy shopping hub of Pune
Baner, when it was a recently developed suburb of Pune.
Hadapsar, a recently developed suburb of Pune.
EON IT Park, Kharadi
Kirloskar Group headquarters in Pune
Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune
Force Motors plant in Pune
Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune.
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Deccan college houses the museums of Maratha history and Indian archaeology
Ganpati procession by Jnana Prabodhini school
Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium
Pune Municipal Corporation Building
Khadakwasla reservoir, the main source of water for the city
St. Vincent's High School, Camp, Pune.
Jnana Prabodhini Prashala, Sadashiv Peth, Pune
Savitribai Phule Pune University headquarters. During the British era, the building served as the Monsoon residence for the Governor of the Bombay Presidency.
Pune Railway Station – entrance
An EMU on the Pune–Lonavla suburban line
Deccan Express with Vistadome Coach
Local buses in Pune
Pune Metro during trial Run
A highway leading into Pune
Departure lounge at Pune Airport
B. J. Medical College, Pune was established in 1878 and is associated with the Sassoon Hospital.

The city was previously also ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, the Mughals and the Adil Shahi dynasty.

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb renamed the city Muhiyabad (the only divergent naming) some time between 1703 and 1705 in memory of his great-grandson Muhi-ul-Milan, who died there.

Maratha Empire

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Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The Marathas became prominent in the 17th century under the leadership of Shivaji, who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty, and the Mughals to carve out a kingdom with Raigad as his capital.

To nullify the alliance between his rebel son, Akbar, and the Marathas, Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb headed south in 1681.

Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals

Marathi people

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Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who are indigenous to Maharashtra in western India.

Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who are indigenous to Maharashtra in western India.

Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals
A watercolor painting of Pune from the late Peshwa era as seen from the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers, by British artist Henry Salt. The picture clearly shows the permanent features of the place and cremations. River confluences have been popular in Hinduism for cremations and also for ceremonial disposal of ashes
A replica Killa (fort) presented by a family at a Maharashtra Mandal Diwali program in United States
Deepmala Deep Stamb in Omkareshwar Temple in Pune
A Marathi household shrine with Khandoba at the forefront
Naivedya (Food offering) for the ancestors during a Pitru paksha ceremony
A Gudhi is erected on Gudhi Padwa.
Dnyaneshwar palakhi on its way to Pandharpur
Gokulashtami dahi-handi celebration
Woman playing Zimma on the night of a Mangala Gauri celebration in the Month of Shravan
Oxen decorated for Pola in a village.
A clay idol of Ganesh being immersed in water at the conclusion of the annual Ganeshotsav on the 11th day or Anant Chaturdashi
Women performing Bhondla dance during the festival of Navratri
Devotees showering turmeric powder (bhandara) on each other at Khandoba Temple in Jejuri during Champa Shashthi.
Traditional Sesame seed based sweets for Makar Sankrant
Shimga being celebrated on the port of Harne on the Konkan coast
Bullock cart race at a Jatra in Manchar, Maharashtra
A simple Maharashtrian meal with bhaaji, bhakari, raw onion and pickle
A typical Diwali plate of snack (faral&thinsp;). Clockwise from top: chakli, kadboli, shev, gaathi, chivda and in the center are yellow besan and white rava ladu.
Princess Indira Raje (1892-1968) of Baroda as a young girl with her mother,
Chimnabai II, wearing a 'Nauvari', a traditional Maharashtrian sari

After the Yadav defeat, the area was ruled for the next 300 years by a succession of Muslim rulers including (in chronological order): the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, and the Bahamani Sultanate and its successor states called the Deccan sultanates, such as Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, and the Mughal Empire.

Shivaji's son Sambhaji, also his successor as Chhatrapati, led the Maratha Empire valiantly against the much stronger Mughal opponent, but in 1689, after being betrayed, Sambhaji was captured, tortured and killed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

Shivaji

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Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
South India at the turn of the 17th century
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
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A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

Shivaji carved out his own independent kingdom from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur which formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire.

Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb who then, was the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.

Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India

Deccan Plateau

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Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India
The Deccan Plateau is a major part of South India (see inset for north and south Deccan Plateau)
Hogenakal Falls, Tamil Nadu
Tiruvannamalai hill, often regarded as the southern tip of the Deccan plateau, the city of Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu itself considered the gateway to the plateau
Near Hampi, Karnataka
Rock formations at Hyderabad, Telangana Hills of granite boulders are a common feature of the landscape on the Deccan plateau.
Deccan Traps in Maharashtra

When the Bahmani empire dissolved in 1518, its dominions were distributed into the five Muslim states of Golkonda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Bidar and Berar, giving rise to the Deccan sultanates.

These raids, however, angered the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and by 1680 he moved his capital from Delhi to Aurangabad in Deccan to conquer Maratha-held territories.

Laterite under the Top soil Layer

Bidar

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City in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in India.

City in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in India.

Laterite under the Top soil Layer
museum inside Bidar fort
The Karnataka tableau depicting Bidriware Handicraft from Bidar passes through the Rajpath during the Republic Day Parade 2011.
Distance from major cities of Karnataka to Bidar
Fort Garden Bidar
Bidar Fort (inside view garden)
Bidar Fort (inside view)
Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib
Madrasa Bidar Bidar
Ashtur Tombs
Papnash Temple

Bidar remained under the Barid Shahi dynasty until conquest by the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619.

Aurangzeb came to Bidar after his father, Padshah (emperor) Shah Jahan, appointed him the Prince of Deccan.

Bijapur district, Karnataka

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District in the state of Karnataka in India.

District in the state of Karnataka in India.

Chand Bibi, the regent of Bijapur (1580-90)
Talukas of Bijapur District
Political map of the Bijapur district

Bijapur is well known for the great monuments of historical importance built during the Adil Shahi dynasty.

The rule of this dynasty ended in 1686, when Bijapur was conquered by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Qutb Shahi dynasty

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The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golconda Sultanate in northern Deccan Plateau (Telangana) from 1512 AD to 1687 AD, a Persianate Shia Islamic dynasty, the Qutb Shahis were descendants of Qara Yusuf from Qara Qoyunlu of Hamadan province of Persia, originally a Turkoman Muslim tribe.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golconda Sultanate in northern Deccan Plateau (Telangana) from 1512 AD to 1687 AD, a Persianate Shia Islamic dynasty, the Qutb Shahis were descendants of Qara Yusuf from Qara Qoyunlu of Hamadan province of Persia, originally a Turkoman Muslim tribe.

Golconda in 1733 CE.
Tomb of Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah in Hyderabad.
Golkonda Painting, 1650-1670 Opaque watercolor and gold on paper Overall
Music in Golkonda, 1660–1670. Musician plays a form of rubab.
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.

The dynasty came to an end in 1687 during the reign of its seventh Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb arrested and jailed him for the rest of his life in Daulatabad, absorbed Golconda into the Mughal empire.

The Golconda sultanate was constantly in conflict with the Adil Shahis and Nizam Shahis.

A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

Sikandar Adil Shah

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The last Sultan of Bijapur, who reigned between 1672 and 1686.

The last Sultan of Bijapur, who reigned between 1672 and 1686.

A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

His reign ended when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb annexed the city of Bijapur, putting an end to the Adil Shahi dynasty.