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Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

Mesenchymal stem cell

mesenchymal stem cellsmesenchymal cellmesenchymal
Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types through adipogenesis. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

Adipogenesis

adipogenic differentiationadipogenic hormoneslipid accumulation
Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types through adipogenesis.
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes.

Brown adipose tissue

brown fatbrownBaby fat
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white fat and brown fat, respectively, and comprise two types of fat cells.
In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color.

Leptin

leptin resistancelectinLEP
White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.

Marrow adipose tissue

marrow adipose tissue (MAT)adipocytesmarrow adipocyte
The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health.
The marrow adipocytes originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among other cell types.

Fat

greasetotal fatdietary fat
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
Adipocytes (fat cells) store fat derived from the diet and from liver metabolism.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
White fat cells or monovacuolar cells contain a large lipid droplet surrounded by a layer of
The adipocyte, or fat cell, is designed for continuous synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in animals, with breakdown controlled mainly by the activation of hormone-sensitive enzyme lipase.

Connective tissue

fibrous tissuefibrous connective tissueconnective
Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone.
The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Obesity is characterized by the expansion of fat mass, through adipocyte size increase (hypertrophy) and, to a lesser extent, cell proliferation (hyperplasia).
Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).

Adiponectin

adiponectin receptorsAPM1Hypoadiponectinemia
White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.
In 2007, adiponectin was identified as a transcript highly expressed in preadipocytes (precursors of fat cells) differentiating into adipocytes.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
cytoplasm.
Lipid droplets make up much of the volume of adipocytes, which are specialized lipid-storage cells, but they are also found in a range of other cell types.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
In the fat cells of obese individuals, there is increased production of metabolism modulators, such as glycerol, hormones, macrophage stimulating chemokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of insulin resistance.
It is well known that insulin regulates the conversion of carbohydrates into [[Fatty acid metabolism#Glycolytic end products are used in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids|fats]] (triglycerides) by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat cells.

Apelin

White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.
Apelin is expressed and secreted by adipocytes, and its production is increased during adipocyte differentiation and is stimulated by insulin.

List of human cell types derived from the germ layers

*List of human cell types derived from the germ layers
Lipoblast → Adipocyte

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

White adipose tissue

white fatwhitewhite adipose
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white fat and brown fat, respectively, and comprise two types of fat cells.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
The nucleus is flattened and located on the periphery.

Triglyceride

triglyceridestriacylglyceroltriacylglyceride
The fat stored is in a semi-liquid state, and is composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester.

Cholesteryl ester

cholesterol esterscholesteryl esterscholesterol ester
The fat stored is in a semi-liquid state, and is composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester.

Adipokine

adipokinesadipocytokine
White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.

Resistin

White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.

Polyhedron

polyhedrapolyhedral3
Brown fat cells or plurivacuolar cells are polyhedral in shape.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
The brown color comes from the large quantity of mitochondria.

Fibroblast

fibroblastsfeeder cellfibroblastic
Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes.