Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfatfatty tissuevisceral fatadiposityfat tissuefat bodyfat depositionfat mass
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.wikipedia
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Adipose tissue macrophages

In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages.
ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.

White adipose tissue

white fatwhitewhite adipose
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots, including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and perirenal depots.
White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals.

Resistin

Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.
In primates, pigs, and dogs, resistin is secreted by immune and epithelial cells, while, in rodents, it is secreted by adipose tissue.

Adipocyte

adipocytesfat cellsfat cell
In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. SVF includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, adipose tissue macrophages, and endothelial cells.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

Connective tissue

fibrous tissuefibrous connective tissueconnective
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body.
The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of triglycerides and the release of glycerol and fatty acids from adipose tissue are the initial steps in metabolizing fat.

Abdominal obesity

central obesitybeer bellypot belly
An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or "belly fat", in which the abdomen protrudes excessively.
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

Integumentary system

integumentintegumentarytegument
In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold.
The deepest layer, the hypodermis, is primarily made up of adipose tissue.

Panniculus

In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus.
Panniculus, often incorrectly referred to as pannus, is a medical term describing a dense layer of fatty tissue, consisting of excess subcutaneous fat within the lower abdominal region.

Mesentery

mesentericmesenteriestransverse mesocolon
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots, including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and perirenal depots.
It helps in storing fat and allowing blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to supply the intestines, among other functions.

Macrophage

macrophagesTissue macrophagesCD68 + macrophages
SVF includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, adipose tissue macrophages, and endothelial cells.
Within the fat (adipose) tissue of CCR2 deficient mice, there is an increased number of eosinophils, greater alternative macrophage activation, and a propensity towards type 2 cytokine expression.

Leptin

leptin resistancelectinLEP
Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.
;Function: The primary function of the hormone leptin is the regulation of adipose tissue mass through central hypothalamus mediated effects on hunger, food energy use, physical exercise and energy balance.

Estrogen

oestrogenestrogensestrogenic
Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.
Estrogen is primarily and directly responsible for inducing the ductal component of breast development, as well as for causing fat deposition and connective tissue growth.

Triglyceride

triglyceridestriacylglyceroltriacylglyceride
Ectopic fat is the storage of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue, that are supposed to contain only small amounts of fat, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat.

Mesenchymal stem cell

mesenchymal stem cellsmesenchymal cellmesenchymal
The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well as other cell types.
The term encompasses multipotent cells derived from other non-marrow tissues, such as placenta, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, adult muscle, corneal stroma or the dental pulp of deciduous baby teeth. The cells do not have the capacity to reconstitute an entire organ.

Marrow adipose tissue

marrow adipose tissue (MAT)adipocytesmarrow adipocyte
Marrow fat, also known as marrow adipose tissue (MAT), is a poorly understood adipose depot that resides in the bone and is interspersed with hematopoietic cells as well as bony elements.
Subcutaneous white fat contain excess energy, indicating a clear evolutionary advantage during times of scarcity.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TNF-αtumor necrosis factor-alphaTNFα
Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.
TNF was thought to be produced primarily by macrophages, but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac myocytes, adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons.

Subcutaneous tissue

subcutaneoussubcutaneous fathypodermis
In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold. In humans, adipose tissue is located: beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue.
It is used mainly for fat storage.

Adipose-derived hormones

adipose-derivedadipose-derived hormone
Adipose derived hormones include:
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes numerous protein hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
The paired gonadal depots are attached to the uterus and ovaries in females and the epididymis and testes in males; the paired retroperitoneal depots are found along the dorsal wall of the abdomen, surrounding the kidney, and, when massive, extend into the pelvis.
Abdominal obesity is a condition where abdominal fat or visceral fat, has built up excessively between the abdominal organs.

Aromatase

aromatizedaromatizablearomatization
Adipose tissue is the greatest peripheral source of aromatase in both males and females, contributing to the production of estradiol.
The aromatase enzyme can be found in many tissues including gonads (granulosa cells), brain, adipose tissue, placenta, blood vessels, skin, and bone, as well as in tissue of endometriosis, uterine fibroids, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer.

Adiponectin

adiponectin receptorsAPM1Hypoadiponectinemia
Adiponectin
Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy ) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones.

Adipokine

adipokinesadipocytokine
Adipose tissues also secrete a type of cytokines (cell-to-cell signalling proteins) called adipokines (adipocytokines), which play a role in obesity-associated complications.
The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
Techniques to manipulate the differentiation of "brown fat" could become a mechanism for weight loss therapy in the future, encouraging the growth of tissue with this specialized metabolism without inducing it in other organs.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

Brown adipose tissue

brown fatbrownBaby fat
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat.
Whilst believed by many to be a type of gland, it is actually a collection of adipose tissues lying between the scapulae of rodentine mammals.