Adipose tissue macrophages

Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.wikipedia
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Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue apart from adipocytes is composed of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and variety of immune cells.
In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages.

Macrophage

macrophagesTissue macrophagesCD68 + macrophages
ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.

Adipocyte

adipocytesfat cellsfat cell
Adipose tissue apart from adipocytes is composed of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and variety of immune cells.

Mast cell

mast cellsanaphylactic degranulationmastocytes
The latter ones are composed of mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, T cells and macrophages.

Eosinophil

eosinophilseosinophil granulocyteEosino
The latter ones are composed of mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, T cells and macrophages.

B cell

BB lymphocytesB-cell
The latter ones are composed of mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, T cells and macrophages.

T cell

TT lymphocytesT-cells
The latter ones are composed of mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, T cells and macrophages.

Rudolph Leibel

As discovered by Rudolph Leibel and Anthony Ferrante et al. in 2003 at Columbia University, the percentage of macrophages within adipose tissue ranges from 10% in lean mice and humans up to 50% in extremely obese, leptin deficient mice and almost 40% in obese humans.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeColumbia University President
As discovered by Rudolph Leibel and Anthony Ferrante et al. in 2003 at Columbia University, the percentage of macrophages within adipose tissue ranges from 10% in lean mice and humans up to 50% in extremely obese, leptin deficient mice and almost 40% in obese humans.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Increased number of adipose tissue macrophages correlates with increased adipose tissue production of proinflammatory molecules and might therefore contribute to the pathophysiological consequences of obesity (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes).

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Increased number of adipose tissue macrophages correlates with increased adipose tissue production of proinflammatory molecules and might therefore contribute to the pathophysiological consequences of obesity (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes).

Anti-inflammatory

antiinflammatoryanti-inflammatoriesanti-inflammatory drug
Accordingly, macrophages can exhibit either pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes and are routinely classified into M1 (classically activated) phenotype and M2 (alternatively activated) phenotype.

Interferon gamma

IFN-γinterferon-gammainterferon-γ
According to this classification, macrophages acquire M1 phenotype following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone or in combination with TLR ligands (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) whereas macrophages acquire M2 phenotype after in vitro exposure to IL-4 and IL-13.

Toll-like receptor

toll-like receptorsTLRtoll-like receptors (TLRs)
According to this classification, macrophages acquire M1 phenotype following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone or in combination with TLR ligands (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) whereas macrophages acquire M2 phenotype after in vitro exposure to IL-4 and IL-13.

Lipopolysaccharide

endotoxinLPSlipopolysaccharides
According to this classification, macrophages acquire M1 phenotype following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone or in combination with TLR ligands (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) whereas macrophages acquire M2 phenotype after in vitro exposure to IL-4 and IL-13.

Interleukin 4

IL-4interleukin-4IL4
According to this classification, macrophages acquire M1 phenotype following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone or in combination with TLR ligands (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) whereas macrophages acquire M2 phenotype after in vitro exposure to IL-4 and IL-13.

Interleukin 13

IL-13interleukin-13IL13
According to this classification, macrophages acquire M1 phenotype following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone or in combination with TLR ligands (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) whereas macrophages acquire M2 phenotype after in vitro exposure to IL-4 and IL-13.

Inflammatory cytokine

proinflammatory cytokineproinflammatory cytokinespro-inflammatory cytokine
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

tumor necrosis factorTNFtumour necrosis factor
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Interleukin 6

IL-6interleukin-6IL6
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Interleukin 1 beta

IL-1βinterleukin-1βinterleukin-1 beta
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Reactive oxygen species

ROSreactive oxygenreactive oxygen species (ROS)
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Reactive nitrogen species

RNSnitrogen speciesnitrosative stress
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Nitric oxide synthase 2 (inducible)

NOS2inducible nitric oxide synthasemacrophage NOS
M1 macrophages secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β) and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as nitric oxide via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).