Adjectivewikipedia

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjectiveadj.adjectival formattributivepredicate adjectiveattributivelyattributive positionadj
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

Postpositive adjective

post-positive adjectivePost-positiveadjectives postpositively
1) Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee." See also Postpositive adjective.
A postpositive or postnominal adjective is an attributive adjective that is placed after the noun or pronoun that it modifies.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a subtype of noun.
The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Nominalized adjective

Nominal adjectiveadjective used as a nounattributive
3) Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind. In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new". In such cases, the adjective functions may function as a mass noun (as in the preceding example). In English, it may also function as a plural count noun denoting a collective group, as in "The meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who are meek".
A nominalized adjective is an adjective that has undergone nominalization, and is thus used as a noun.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
2) Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy." (See also: Predicative expression, Subject complement.)
The predicative expression accompanying the copula, also known as the complement of the copula, may take any of several possible forms: it may be a noun or noun phrase, an adjective or adjective phrase, a prepositional phrase (as above) or another adverb or adverbial phrase expressing time or location.

Attributive verb

verbal adjectivedeverbal adjectiveadjectival
As for "confusion" with verbs, rather than an adjective meaning "big", a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and could then use an attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house".
An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.

Dutch grammar

DutchDutch grammar: Pronouns and determinersr''-pronouns
For example, where English uses to be hungry (hungry being an adjective), Dutch, French, and Spanish use honger hebben, avoir faim, and tener hambre respectively (literally "to have hunger", the words for "hunger" being nouns).
Adjectives always come before the noun to which they belong.

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
For example, where English uses to be hungry (hungry being an adjective), Dutch, French, and Spanish use honger hebben, avoir faim, and tener hambre respectively (literally "to have hunger", the words for "hunger" being nouns).
Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number (singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently); adjectives, for number and gender (masculine or feminine) of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person, number, gender, and case; and verbs, for tense, aspect, mood, and the person and number of their subjects.

Japanese equivalents of adjectives

taru'' adjectivesi''-adjectivesthree classes of adjective
Similarly, native Japanese adjectives (i-adjectives) are considered a closed class (as are native verbs), although nouns (an open class) may be used in the genitive to convey some adjectival meanings, and there is also the separate open class of adjectival nouns (na-adjectives).
The Japanese language does not have words that function as adjectives in a syntactic sense – that is to say that tree diagrams of Japanese sentences can be constructed without employing adjective phrases.

Adverb

adverbsadv.Adverbial constructions
Many languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs, which mainly modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, determiner, clause, preposition, or sentence.

Adjectival noun (Japanese)

adjectival nounadjectival nounsJapanese adjectival nouns
Similarly, native Japanese adjectives (i-adjectives) are considered a closed class (as are native verbs), although nouns (an open class) may be used in the genitive to convey some adjectival meanings, and there is also the separate open class of adjectival nouns (na-adjectives).
In descriptions of the Japanese language, an adjectival noun, adjectival, or na-adjective is a noun that can function as an adjective by taking the particle 〜な -na.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Adjectives are one of the English parts of speech, although they were historically classed together with the nouns. In languages which have adjectives as a word class, they are usually an open class; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article or determiner.

Declension

declinedcasecases
In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a subtype of noun.
Declensions may apply to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case (nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and/or gender.

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspectsChinese aspect markers
Such an analysis is possible for the grammar of Standard Chinese, for example.
Predicate adjectives are normally used without a copular verb ("to be"), and can thus be regarded as a type of verb.

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers (alone or as the head of a phrase).
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Adjective

Definiteness

definiteindefinitedef.
Determiners generally do this by indicating definiteness (as in a vs. the), quantity (as in one vs. some vs. many), or another such property.
In some other languages, the marker is a clitic that attaches phonologically to the noun (and often to modifying adjectives), e.g. the Hebrew definite article ha- or the Arabic definite article al-.

Subject complement

predicate nominativesubject complementspredicate noun
2) Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy." (See also: Predicative expression, Subject complement.)
An adjective following the copula and describing the subject is called a predicative adjective.

Tagalog grammar

as rigidly aspassive voicemga
Other languages, such as Tagalog, follow their adjectival orders as rigidly as English.
In Tagalog, there are eight basic parts of speech: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions and particles.

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrases
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified. 1) Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee." See also Postpositive adjective.
attributive adjectives, such as large, beautiful, sweeter

Comparison (grammar)

superlativecomparativecomparison
Some languages do not distinguish between comparative and superlative forms.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Other constructs that often modify nouns include prepositional phrases (as in "a rebel without a cause"), relative clauses (as in "the man who wasn't there"), and infinitive phrases (as in "a cake to die for"). Some nouns can also take complements such as content clauses (as in "the idea that I would do that"), but these are not commonly considered modifiers.
In English, this is generally a noun (or something functioning as a noun, e.g., a gerund), together with its specifier and modifiers such as articles, adjectives, etc. The complement is sometimes called the object of the adposition.

List of eponymous adjectives in English

Adjectivesritzyeponymous adjectives
List of eponymous adjectives in English
An eponymous adjective is an adjective which has been derived from the name of a person, real or fictional.

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
In languages which have adjectives as a word class, they are usually an open class; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
For example, the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow → slowly).