Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjectiveadj.glaucousadjectival formpredicate adjectiveattributiveattributivelyattributive position
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word whose main role is to modify/ describe a noun or noun phrase.wikipedia
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word whose main role is to modify/ describe a noun or noun phrase.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a type of noun.
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Declension

declinedcasecases
In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a type of noun.
Declensions may apply to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and articles to indicate number (e.g. singular, dual, plural), case (e.g. nominative case, accusative case, genitive case, dative case), gender (e.g. masculine, neuter, feminine), and a number of other grammatical categories.

Postpositive adjective

post-positive adjectivePost-positiveadjectives postpositively
Owing partially to borrowings from French, English has some adjectives that follow the noun as postmodifiers, called postpositive adjectives, as in time immemorial and attorney general.

Nominalized adjective

adjective used as a nounattributiveNominal adjective
A nominalized adjective is an adjective that has undergone nominalization, and is thus used as a noun.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word whose main role is to modify/ describe a noun or noun phrase.
In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word whose main role is to modify/ describe a noun or noun phrase.

Attributive verb

verbal adjectivedeverbal adjectiveadjectival
As for "confusion" with verbs, rather than an adjective meaning "big", a language might have a verb that means "to be big" and could then use an attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what in English is called a "big house".
An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.

Dutch grammar

DutchDutch equivalentDutch grammar: Pronouns and determiners
For example, where English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective), Dutch, French, and Spanish use "honger hebben", "avoir faim", and "tener hambre" respectively (literally "to have hunger", the words for "hunger" being nouns).
Adjectives always come before the noun to which they belong.

French grammar

FrenchgrammarIl y a
For example, where English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective), Dutch, French, and Spanish use "honger hebben", "avoir faim", and "tener hambre" respectively (literally "to have hunger", the words for "hunger" being nouns).
Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number (singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently); adjectives, for number and gender (masculine or feminine) of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person, number, gender, and case; and verbs, for tense, aspect, mood, and the person and number of their subjects.

Subject complement

predicate nominativecomplementpredicate nominals
An adjective following the copula and describing the subject is called a predicative adjective.

Chinese grammar

Chinese verbsChineseChinese aspect markers
Such an analysis is possible for the grammar of Standard Chinese, for example.
Predicate adjectives are normally used without a copular verb ("to be"), and can thus be regarded as a type of verb.

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Many languages (including English) distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs, which mainly modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, determiner, clause, preposition, or sentence.

Japanese equivalents of adjectives

Japanese adjectivestaru'' adjectives-い ''-i'' adjective
Similarly, native Japanese adjectives (i-adjectives) are considered a closed class (as are native verbs), although nouns (an open class) may be used in the genitive to convey some adjectival meanings, and there is also the separate open class of adjectival nouns (na-adjectives).
Most of the words that can be considered to be adjectives in Japanese fall into one of two categories – variants of verbs, and nouns:

Adjectival noun (Japanese)

adjectival nounadjectival nounsJapanese adjectival nouns
Similarly, native Japanese adjectives (i-adjectives) are considered a closed class (as are native verbs), although nouns (an open class) may be used in the genitive to convey some adjectival meanings, and there is also the separate open class of adjectival nouns (na-adjectives).
In descriptions of the Japanese language, an adjectival noun, adjectival, or na-adjective is a noun that can function as an adjective by taking the particle 〜な -na.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Adjectives are one of the main parts of speech of the English language, although historically they were classed together with nouns. Adjectives feature as a part of speech (word class) in most languages. In languages that have adjectives as a word class, it is usually an open class; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article, or determiner.

Definiteness

definiteindefinitedef.
They generally do this by indicating definiteness (a vs. the), quantity (one vs. some vs. many), or another such property.
In some other languages, the marker is a clitic that attaches phonologically to the noun (and often to modifying adjectives): the Hebrew definite article ha- or the Arabic definite article al-.

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers (alone or as the head of a phrase).
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Adjective comes from Latin nōmen adjectīvum, a calque of.
The inflections express gender, number, and case in adjectives, nouns, and pronouns, a process called declension.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Adjectives feature as a part of speech (word class) in most languages.
Another common category is the adjective: words that describe properties or qualities of nouns, such as "red" or "big".

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
In languages that have adjectives as a word class, it is usually an open class; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
For example, the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow → slowly).

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Other constructs that often modify nouns include prepositional phrases (as in "a rebel without a cause"), relative clauses (as in "the man who wasn't there"), and infinitive phrases (as in "a cake to die for").
In English, this is generally a noun (or something functioning as a noun, e.g., a gerund), together with its specifier and modifiers such as articles, adjectives, etc. The complement is sometimes called the object of the adposition.

Tagalog grammar

as rigidly asdiscourse markersFilipino grammar
Other languages, such as Tagalog, follow their adjectival orders as rigidly as English.
In Tagalog, there are nine basic parts of speech: verbs (pandiwa), nouns (pangngalan), adjectives (pang-uri), adverbs (pang-abay), prepositions (pang-ukol), pronouns (panghalip), conjunctions (pangatnig), ligatures (pang-angkop) and particles.

Comparison (grammar)

superlativecomparativecomparison
Some languages do not distinguish between comparative and superlative forms.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.