Adolf Eichmann

EichmannEichmann trialtrial of Adolf EichmannOperation EichmanntrialAdolf Eichmann trialAdolph Eichmann1961 trialAdolf '''EichmannAdolf Eichmann war crimes trial
Otto Adolf Eichmann (, ; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology.wikipedia
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Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
Otto Adolf Eichmann (, ; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology. During the Nuremberg Trials, Rudolf Höss, commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, testified that Himmler had told Höss to receive all operational instructions for the implementation of the Final Solution from Eichmann.
In 1940, following the Fall of France, Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons, mainly a naval blockade.

Madagascar Plan

Madagascarin MadagascarJews to be exiled to Madagascar
He also drew up plans for a Jewish reservation, first at Nisko in southeast Poland and later in Madagascar, but neither of these plans were ever carried out.
With Adolf Hitler's approval, Adolf Eichmann released a memorandum on 15 August 1940 calling for the resettlement of a million Jews per year for four years, with the island being governed as a police state under the SS.

Lublin Reservation

Nisko PlanLublin districtDistrict Lublin
He also drew up plans for a Jewish reservation, first at Nisko in southeast Poland and later in Madagascar, but neither of these plans were ever carried out.
Adolf Hitler devised the idea with the help of Nazi chief ideologist Alfred Rosenberg and Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, including the participation of SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann ("architect of the Holocaust"); as well as Heinrich Müller of the Gestapo, Hans Frank (Hitler's lawyer) and Arthur Seyss-Inquart of the Generalgouvernement administration.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Otto Adolf Eichmann (, ; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology.
In August that year, Adolf Eichmann was put in charge of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna (Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung in Wien).

Hannah Arendt

ArendtArendt, HannahH Arendt
The trial was widely followed in the media and was later the subject of several books, including Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem, in which Arendt coined the phrase "the banality of evil" to describe Eichmann.
In the popular mind she is best remembered for the controversy surrounding the trial of Adolf Eichmann, her attempt to explain how ordinary people become actors in totalitarian systems, which was considered an apologia, and for the phrase "the banality of evil".

Mossad

Israeli intelligenceThe Mossada third
Eichmann was captured by the Mossad in Argentina on 11 May 1960 and subsequently found guilty of war crimes in a widely publicised trial in Jerusalem, where he was executed by hanging in 1962.
In 1960, Mossad discovered that the Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina.

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denierHolocaust deniersdenied the Holocaust
During the trial, he did not deny the Holocaust or his role in organising it, but claimed that he was simply following orders in a totalitarian Führerprinzip system.
In 1961, the Israeli government captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial for war crimes.

Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
He was tasked by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics involved in the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II.
Responsibility for the logistics were to be executed by the programme administrator, Adolf Eichmann.

Linz

Linz, AustriaLinz an der DonauBiennale Cuvée, Linz
The elder Adolf moved to Linz, Austria, in 1913 to take a position as commercial manager for the Linz Tramway and Electrical Company, and the rest of the family followed a year later.
Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz.

Reinhard Heydrich

HeydrichR. HeydrichReinhardt Heydrich
He was tasked by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics involved in the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II.
Heydrich was the lead speaker, with support from Adolf Eichmann.

Obersturmbannführer

SS-ObersturmbannführerObersturmbannfuhrerObersturmbannfuehrer
Otto Adolf Eichmann (, ; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology.
Adolf Eichmann was promoted to Obersturmbannführer in 1940 and was still listed as one in the minutes of the Wannsee Conference January 1942.

Ernst Kaltenbrunner

KaltenbrunnerKALTENBRUNNER, Ernst
On the advice of family friend and local SS leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the NSDAP on 1 April 1932, member number 889,895. Visitors included Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, and Baron Leopold von Mildenstein.
Raised in a nationalist family, Kaltenbrunner was childhood friends with Adolf Eichmann, the infamous SS officer who played a key role in implementing the Nazis' Final Solution against Europe's Jews.

Leopold von Mildenstein

Visitors included Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, and Baron Leopold von Mildenstein.
In 1956, he went to Egypt to work for a radio station, and after the capture of Adolf Eichmann in 1960 he claimed immunity as an intelligence agent of the US Central Intelligence Agency, a claim which was neither confirmed nor denied.

Auschwitz concentration camp

AuschwitzAuschwitz-BirkenauBirkenau
Most of the victims were sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, where about 75 per cent were murdered upon arrival.
Correspondence between Adolf Eichmann's office and the International Red Cross suggests that the Germans set up the camp to cast doubt on reports, in time for a planned Red Cross visit to Auschwitz, that mass murder was taking place in Auschwitz.

Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna

office in Viennathe Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in ViennaVienna
Eichmann was promoted to SS-Obersturmführer (first lieutenant) in July 1938, and appointed to the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, created in August.
Adolf Eichmann, who had been sent from Berlin as the head of the Agency, and his associate Alois Brunner, set the emigration quotas, the fulfillment of which was delegated by the Nazi Party to the Israelite Community of Vienna.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Otto Adolf Eichmann (, ; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology. On the advice of family friend and local SS leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the NSDAP on 1 April 1932, member number 889,895.
The Eichmann Sonderkommando was a task force headed by Adolf Eichmann that arrived in Budapest on 19 March 1944, the same day that Axis forces invaded Hungary.

Wannsee Conference

WannseeHouse of the Wannsee ConferenceWannsee Villa
To co-ordinate planning for the genocide, Heydrich, who was Eichmann's superior, hosted the regime's administrative leaders at the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942.
He said at his trial: "How shall I put it – certain over-plain talk and jargon expressions had to be rendered into office language by me".

Sicherheitsdienst

SDSecurity ServiceAusland-SD
He returned to Germany in 1933, where he joined the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, "Security Service"); there he was appointed head of the department responsible for Jewish affairs—especially emigration, which the Nazis encouraged through violence and economic pressure.
Continued escalation of antisemitic policies in the spring of 1937 from the SD organization concerned with Jewish affairs—staffed by members like Adolf Eichmann, Herbert Hagen, and Theodor Dannecker—led to the eventual removal (Entfernung) of Jews from Germany devoid of concerns about where they were headed.

Gestapo

Geheime Staatspolizeithe authoritiesauthorities
On 27 September 1939 the SD and the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo, "Security Police") – the latter comprising the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) and Kriminalpolizei (Kripo) police agencies – were combined into the new Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA, "Reich Security Main Office"), which was placed under Heydrich's control.
His direct subordinate Adolf Eichmann headed the Gestapo's Office of Resettlement and then its Office of Jewish Affairs (Referat IV B4 or Sub-Department IV, Section B4).

Rezső Kasztner

Rudolf KastnerRudolf KasztnerRudolph Kastner
In June 1944 Eichmann was involved in negotiations with Rudolf Kasztner that resulted in the rescue of 1,684 people, who were sent by train to safety in Switzerland in exchange for three suitcases full of diamonds, gold, cash, and securities.
Kasztner negotiated with Adolf Eichmann, a senior SS officer, to allow 1,684 Jews to leave instead for Switzerland on what became known as the Kastner train, in exchange for money, gold and diamonds.

Dieter Wisliceny

Wisliceny
Dieter Wisliceny testified at Nuremberg that Eichmann told him he would "leap laughing into the grave because the feeling that he had five million people on his conscience would be for him a source of extraordinary satisfaction".
Wisliceny was an important witness at the Nuremberg trials, and his testimony would later prove important in the prosecution of Adolf Eichmann for war crimes in Israel in 1961.

Joel Brand

blood for goodsJoel
In a series of meetings beginning on 25 April, Eichmann met with Joel Brand, a Hungarian Jew and member of the Relief and Rescue Committee (RRC).
In April 1944 Brand was approached by Adolf Eichmann, the German SS officer who had arrived in Budapest to organize the deportations.

Kastner train

Kasztner trainKastner's Trainby train on 30 June 1944
In June 1944 Eichmann was involved in negotiations with Rudolf Kasztner that resulted in the rescue of 1,684 people, who were sent by train to safety in Switzerland in exchange for three suitcases full of diamonds, gold, cash, and securities.
Kastner negotiated with Adolf Eichmann, the German SS officer in charge of deporting Hungary's Jews to Auschwitz in German-occupied Poland, to allow over 1,600 Jews to escape in exchange for gold, diamonds and cash.

Nuremberg trials

NurembergInternational Military TribunalNuremberg Trial
During the Nuremberg Trials, Rudolf Höss, commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, testified that Himmler had told Höss to receive all operational instructions for the implementation of the Final Solution from Eichmann.
Adolf Eichmann fled to Argentina to avoid capture but was apprehended by Israel's intelligence service (Mossad) and hanged in 1962.

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich MüllerGeneral MüllerMüller
After a posting in Prague to assist in setting up an emigration office there, Eichmann was transferred to Berlin in October 1939 to command the Reichszentrale für Jüdische Auswanderung ("Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration") for the entire Reich under Heinrich Müller, head of the Gestapo.
Shortly thereafter, Müller took charge of this office but then handed control over to Adolf Eichmann.