Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cellsadrenalAdrenal corticaladrenal corticesglomerular layerReticular layer
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.wikipedia
189 Related Articles

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla.

Mineralocorticoid

mineralocorticoidsmineralcorticoidantinatriuretic agent
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively. The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2).
Mineralocorticoids are produced in the adrenal cortex and influence salt and water balances (electrolyte balance and fluid balance).

Glucocorticoid

glucocorticoidssteroidssteroid
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The name "glucocorticoid" is a portmanteau (glucose + cortex + steroid) and is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right).

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively. The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2).
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively. The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals.
It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Zona glomerulosa

cells
The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2).
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.

Androgen

androgensandrogenicAndrogenic steroid
It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.
The main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens, is composed of 19-carbon steroids synthesized in the zona reticularis, the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex.

Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin system
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone synthase

18-hydroxylaseCYP11B218-Hydroxylase deficiency
The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2).
It is a protein which is only expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex and is primarily regulated by the renin–angiotensin system.

Zona fasciculata

Glucocorticoids are produced in the zona fasciculata.
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.

Zona reticularis

zona reticulosa
The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTHcorticotropinadrenocorticotrophic hormone
Its secretion is regulated by the hormone ACTH from the anterior pituitary.
Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

Corticosterone

17-Deoxycortisol11β,21-Dihydroprogesterone
The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals.
However, in humans, cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid that is produced primarily in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
Aldosterone is largely responsible for the long-term regulation of blood pressure.

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

DHEA sulfateDHEA-SDHEAS
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Its secretion is regulated by the hormone ACTH from the anterior pituitary.
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates ACTH release in a cascading effect that ends with the production of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

Steroid

steroidssteroidogenesisbiosynthesis of steroids

Adrenocortical carcinoma

Adrenal cortical carcinomaadrenal carcinomaadrenal carcinomas
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer originating in the cortex (steroid hormone-producing tissue) of the adrenal gland.

Adrenarche

Adrenarche is the result of the development of a new zone of the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAAndrostenolone5-Dehydroepiandrosterone
DHEA is produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and by the gonads under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

Addison's disease

Addison’s diseaseAddisonAutoimmune adrenalitis
Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex is caused by an immune reaction against the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (a phenomenon first described in 1992).

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing syndromeCushing’s syndromehypercortisolism
Excessive ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce high levels of cortisol, producing the disease state.

Adrenal insufficiency

adrenocortical insufficiencyadrenal suppressionhypoadrenalism
Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex is caused by an immune reaction against the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (a phenomenon first described in 1992).

Neuroendocrine cell

neuroendocrineneuroendocrine cellscell
However, together with other data on neuroendocrine properties of zona glomerulosa cells, NCAM expression may reflect a neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells.