Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal glandsuprarenal glandsadrenalsadrenomedullaryadrenal cortexAdrenal functionAdrenal suppressionsuprarenal
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.wikipedia
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Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex itself is divided into three zones: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. The glucocorticoids cortisol and cortisone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation of metabolism and immune system suppression.
It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Adrenal medulla

medullamedullary(medulla)
Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Zona glomerulosa

cells
The adrenal cortex itself is divided into three zones: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.

Endocrine gland

endocrine glandsductless glandendocrine
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Cortisone

cortisoncortisone injectionshistory of the steroid, cortisone
The glucocorticoids cortisol and cortisone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation of metabolism and immune system suppression.
It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress.

Androgen

androgensandrogenicAndrogenic steroid
The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans.
Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands.

Addison's disease

Addison’s diseaseAddisonAutoimmune adrenalitis
Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing's syndrome, whereas insufficient production is associated with Addison's disease.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
They are found above the kidneys. The adrenal glands are located on both sides of the body in the retroperitoneum, above and slightly medial to the kidneys.
On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

adrenal hyperplasiaadrenogenital syndromeadrenal hyperplasia, congenital
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disease produced by dysregulation of endocrine control mechanisms.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
The medulla produces the catecholamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.
ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol.

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing syndromeCushing’s syndromehypercortisolism
Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing's syndrome, whereas insufficient production is associated with Addison's disease.
Cushing's syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone or a tumor that either produces or results in the production of excessive cortisol by the adrenal glands.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
The medulla produces the catecholamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAAndrostenolone5-Dehydroepiandrosterone
It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans.
It is one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans, in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain.

Renal fascia

Gerota's fasciaGerota CapsuleGerota's capsule
The adrenal glands are surrounded by a fatty capsule and lie within the renal fascia, which also surrounds the kidneys.
The renal fascia or Gerota's fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys and the adrenal glands.

Steroid hormone

steroid hormonessteroidal hormonehormone
Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens.
The natural steroid hormones are generally synthesized from cholesterol in the gonads and adrenal glands.

Mineralocorticoid

mineralocorticoidsmineralcorticoidantinatriuretic agent
The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens.
Aldosterone is produced in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland and its secretion is mediated principally by angiotensin II but also by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and local potassium levels.

Lipofuscin

lipofuscin granulesorange pigment
The cells contain relatively small quantities of cytoplasm and lipid droplets, and sometimes display brown lipofuscin pigment.
It is considered to be one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells.

Inferior suprarenal artery

inferior suprarenal branchessuprarenal
The suprarenal arteries irrigate the suprarenal gland parenchyma, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles.

Retroperitoneal space

retroperitoneumretroperitonealretro-peritoneal organs
The adrenal glands are located on both sides of the body in the retroperitoneum, above and slightly medial to the kidneys.

Corticosterone

17-Deoxycortisol11β,21-Dihydroprogesterone
In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by corticosterone instead.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

Androstenedione

4-androstenedioneandrost-4-ene-3,17-dioneandrostendione
It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans.
Androstenedione is produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads.

Inferior phrenic arteries

inferior phrenic arteryinferior phrenicLeft inferior phrenic artery
Each vessel gives off superior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland of its own side.