A report on Adrenaline

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

- Adrenaline
The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

57 related topics with Alpha

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Catechol

Catecholamine

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Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Catechol

Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

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Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Its structure differs from that of epinephrine only in that epinephrine has a methyl group attached to its nitrogen, whereas the methyl group is replaced by a hydrogen atom in norepinephrine.

The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys.

Adrenal gland

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The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys.
Adrenal glands, anterior (left) and posterior (right) surface.
Section of human adrenal gland under the microscope, showing its different layers. From the surface to the center: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis, medulla. In the medulla, the central adrenomedullary vein is visible.
Different hormones are produced in different zones of the cortex and medulla of the gland. Light microscopy at magnification × 204.
Steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands – different steps occur in different layers of the gland
Negative feedback in the HPA axis
Characteristic skin hyperpigmentation in Addison's disease
Incidences and prognoses of adrenal tumors.

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

β2 adrenoceptor shown binding carazolol (yellow) on its extracellular site. β2 stimulates cells to increase energy production and utilization. The membrane the receptor is bound to in cells is shown with a gray stripe.

Adrenergic receptor

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β2 adrenoceptor shown binding carazolol (yellow) on its extracellular site. β2 stimulates cells to increase energy production and utilization. The membrane the receptor is bound to in cells is shown with a gray stripe.
The mechanism of adrenoreceptors. Adrenaline or noradrenaline are receptor ligands to either α1, α2 or β-adrenoreceptors. α1 couples to Gq, which results in increased intracellular Ca2+ and subsequent smooth muscle contraction. α2, on the other hand, couples to Gi, which causes a decrease in neurotransmitter release, as well as a decrease of cAMP activity resulting in smooth muscle contraction. β receptors couple to Gs, and increases intracellular cAMP activity, resulting in e.g. heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation and glycogenolysis.

The adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of many catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) produced by the body, but also many medications like beta blockers, beta-2 (β2) agonists and alpha-2 (α2) agonists, which are used to treat high blood pressure and asthma, for example.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

L-DOPA

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Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

-DOPA is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.

Adrenal medulla

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Part of the adrenal gland.

Part of the adrenal gland.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.
In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex.

It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine, in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

As such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that also includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

Beta blocker

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Beta blockers, also spelled β-blockers, are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

Beta blockers, also spelled β-blockers, are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker

Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter

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Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is cleaved in the synaptic cleft into acetic acid and choline
CAPON Binds Nitric Oxide Synthase, Regulating NMDA Receptor–Mediated Glutamate Neurotransmission

Epinephrine which is also synthesized from tyrosine is released in the adrenal glands and the brainstem. It plays a role in sleep, with one's ability to become and stay alert, and the fight-or-flight response.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response

Fight-or-flight response

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Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response
Bison hunted by dogs

More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.