Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalinadrenergicPrimatene MistEpinephrine (Adrenaline)thrillseekersadrenaladrenaline dumpadrenaline injections
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and medication.wikipedia
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Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation response, and blood sugar level.
More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
Adrenaline is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons in the medulla oblongata where it acts as a neurotransmitter involved in regulating visceral functions (e.g., respiration).
L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine are both precursors for dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

Anaphylaxis

anaphylactic shockanaphylacticanaphylactic reaction
As a medication, it is used to treat a number of conditions including anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and superficial bleeding.
The primary treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine injection into a muscle, intravenous fluids, and positioning the person flat.

Napoleon Cybulski

Napoleon Cybulski first isolated epinephrine in 1895.
In 1895, he isolated and identified adrenaline.

Adrenal medulla

medullamedullary(medulla)
The adrenal medulla is a minor contributor to total circulating catecholamines ( L -DOPA is at a higher concentration in the plasma), though it contributes over 90% of circulating adrenaline.
It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Pupillary response

pupil dilationpupillary dilationdilation
It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation response, and blood sugar level.
A dilation response (mydriasis), is the widening of the pupil and may be caused by adrenaline, anticholinergic agents or drugs such as MDMA, cocaine, amphetamines, dissociatives and some hallucinogenics.

L-DOPA

levodopa L -DOPADOPA
The adrenal medulla is a minor contributor to total circulating catecholamines ( L -DOPA is at a higher concentration in the plasma), though it contributes over 90% of circulating adrenaline.
-DOPA is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines.

Croup

laryngotracheobronchitisobstructive laryngitiscynanche trachealis
Inhaled adrenaline may be used to improve the symptoms of croup.
In more severe cases inhaled epinephrine may also be used.

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

α 2 α 2 -adrenergic receptorα 2 -adrenergic
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
Catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) signal through the α 2 -adrenergic receptor in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor

α 1 α 1 -adrenergic receptorα 1 -adrenergic
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
Catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) signal through the α 1 -adrenergic receptor in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blocker
Overall, "Extensive evidence indicates that epinephrine (EPI) modulates memory consolidation for emotionally arousing tasks in animals and human subjects.” Studies have also found that recognition memory involving adrenaline depends on a mechanism that depends on β adrenoceptors. Adrenaline does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, so its effects on memory consolidation are at least partly initiated by β adrenoceptors in the periphery. Studies have found that sotalol, a β adrenoceptor antagonist that also does not readily enter the brain, blocks the enhancing effects of peripherally administered adrenaline on memory. These findings suggest that β adrenoceptors are necessary for adrenaline to have an effect on memory consolidation.
Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response.

Adrenergic receptor

adrenergic receptorsβadrenergic
It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors.
The adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of many catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) produced by the body, but also many medications like beta blockers, β 2 agonists and α 2 agonists, which are used to treat high blood pressure and asthma, for example.

Vesicular monoamine transporter 1

VMAT1SLC18A1VMAT 1
This may occur via the catecholamine-H + exchanger VMAT1.
VMAT1 is an integral membrane protein, which is embedded in synaptic vesicles and serves to transfer monoamines, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, between the cytosol and synaptic vesicles.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Adrenaline is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons in the medulla oblongata where it acts as a neurotransmitter involved in regulating visceral functions (e.g., respiration). In 1901, Jōkichi Takamine patented a purified extract from the adrenal glands, and called it "adrenalin" (from the Latin ad and renal, "near the kidneys"), which was trademarked by Parke, Davis & Co in the US.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
The target synapse of the postganglionic neuron is mediated by adrenergic receptors and is activated by either norepinephrine (noradrenaline) or epinephrine (adrenaline).

Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

phenylethanolamine ''N''-methyltransferasePNMTphenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase
Failure of the adrenal cortex, as with Addison's disease, can suppress adrenaline secretion as the activity of the synthesing enzyme, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, depends on the high concentration of cortisol that drains from the cortex to the medulla.
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).

Inotrope

inotropicinotropyinotropes
A case has been made for the use of adrenaline infusion in place of the widely accepted treatment of inotropes for preterm infants with clinical cardiovascular compromise.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

β 1 β1-adrenergic receptorβ 1 adrenergic receptor
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

β 3 β 3 adrenergic receptorADRB3
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
Beta adrenergic receptors are involved in the epinephrine- and norepinephrine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of the G proteins of the type G s.

List of generic and genericized trademarks

generic trademarkList of generic and genericised trademarkstrademark
In 1901, Jōkichi Takamine patented a purified extract from the adrenal glands, and called it "adrenalin" (from the Latin ad and renal, "near the kidneys"), which was trademarked by Parke, Davis & Co in the US.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and medication.
Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline, while steroid and vitamin D creams are used extensively in dermatological practice.

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
It may also be used for asthma when other treatments are not effective.
Epinephrine was first referred to in the treatment of asthma in 1905.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
As a medication, it is used to treat a number of conditions including anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and superficial bleeding.
, medications other than epinephrine (adrenaline), while included in guidelines, have not been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

β 2 β 2 -adrenergic receptorβ 2 adrenergic receptor
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α 1, α 2, β 1, β 2, and β 3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β 2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via adenylate cyclase stimulation through trimeric Gs proteins, increased cAMP, and downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.

Lipolysis

lipolyticfat metabolizationlipolyzed
β adrenergic receptor binding triggers glucagon secretion in the pancreas, increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion by the pituitary gland, and increased lipolysis by adipose tissue.
Lipolysis is induced by several hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.