Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
β2 adrenoceptor shown binding carazolol (yellow) on its extracellular site. β2 stimulates cells to increase energy production and utilization. The membrane the receptor is bound to in cells is shown with a gray stripe.
Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
The mechanism of adrenoreceptors. Adrenaline or noradrenaline are receptor ligands to either α1, α2 or β-adrenoreceptors. α1 couples to Gq, which results in increased intracellular Ca2+ and subsequent smooth muscle contraction. α2, on the other hand, couples to Gi, which causes a decrease in neurotransmitter release, as well as a decrease of cAMP activity resulting in smooth muscle contraction. β receptors couple to Gs, and increases intracellular cAMP activity, resulting in e.g. heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation and glycogenolysis.
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

The adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of many catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) produced by the body, but also many medications like beta blockers, beta-2 (β2) agonists and alpha-2 (α2) agonists, which are used to treat high blood pressure and asthma, for example.

- Adrenergic receptor

Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response.

- Beta blocker

Regardless of how and where it is released, norepinephrine acts on target cells by binding to and activating adrenergic receptors located on the cell surface.

- Norepinephrine

Beta blockers, which counter some of the effects of noradrenaline by blocking their receptors, are frequently used to treat glaucoma, migraine, and a range of cardiovascular problems.

- Norepinephrine
Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

1 related topic with Alpha


The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.


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Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors.

Overall, "Extensive evidence indicates that epinephrine (EPI) modulates memory consolidation for emotionally arousing tasks in animals and human subjects.” Studies have also found that recognition memory involving adrenaline depends on a mechanism that depends on β adrenoceptors. Adrenaline does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, so its effects on memory consolidation are at least partly initiated by β adrenoceptors in the periphery. Studies have found that sotalol, a β adrenoceptor antagonist that also does not readily enter the brain, blocks the enhancing effects of peripherally administered adrenaline on memory. These findings suggest that β adrenoceptors are necessary for adrenaline to have an effect on memory consolidation.

Dopamine is then converted to noradrenaline by dopamine beta-hydroxylase which utilizes ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and copper.