Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTHcorticotropinadrenocorticotrophic hormoneadrenocorticotropinadrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)adrenocorticotropicAdrenocorticotropin Hormonecorticotrophinpituitary acth hypersecretionActhar
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.wikipedia
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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisHPA axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus).

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus.
Prostaglandins are now known to inhibit adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and also to stimulate TSH, GH and LH release.

Adrenal insufficiency

adrenocortical insufficiencyadrenal suppressionhypoadrenalism
Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf.
This is called secondary or tertiary adrenal insufficiency and is caused by lack of production of ACTH in the pituitary or lack of CRH in the hypothalamus, respectively.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRHcorticotropin releasing hormoneCRF
ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)).
Its main function is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of ACTH, as part of the HPA Axis.

Corticotropic cell

corticotropeCorticotrophscorticotropes
POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus.
Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which undergoes cleavage to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), β-lipotropin (β-LPH), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).

Addison's disease

Addison’s diseaseAddisonAutoimmune adrenalitis
Conversely, chronically elevated ACTH levels occur in primary adrenal insufficiency (e.g. Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient.
Secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by not enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (produced by the pituitary gland) or CRH (produced by the hypothalamus).

Hypopituitarism

panhypopituitarismHypothalamic dysfunctionHypothalamic suppression
hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency leads to adrenal insufficiency, a lack of production of glucocorticoids such as cortisol by the adrenal gland.

Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex.
Its secretion is regulated by the hormone ACTH from the anterior pituitary.

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing syndromeCushing’s syndromehypercortisolism
In Cushing's disease a pituitary tumor is the cause of elevated ACTH (from the anterior pituitary) and an excess of cortisol (hypercortisolism) – this constellation of signs and symptoms is known as Cushing's syndrome.
If the cortisol remains high, a blood test for ACTH may be done.

Tropic hormone

trophictropic
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf. POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus contains neurons that react strongly to steroids and glucocorticoids – (the steroid hormones of the adrenal gland, released in response to ACTH).

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
Conversely, chronically elevated ACTH levels occur in primary adrenal insufficiency (e.g. Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient. Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland.
Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, mood disorders (such as major depressive disorder), anxiety disorders, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes.

ACTH receptor

MC2RMC 2 Melanocortin 2 Receptor
ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex.
The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC 2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

melanocyte stimulating hormonealpha-mshmelanocyte-stimulating hormones
(This common structure is responsible for excessively tanned skin in Addison's disease.) After a short period of time, ACTH is cleaved into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and CLIP, a peptide with unknown activity in humans.
The various forms of MSH are generated from different cleavages of the proopiomelanocortin protein, which also yields other important neuropeptides like adrenocorticotropic hormone.

Glucocorticoid

glucocorticoidssteroidssteroid
Glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal cortex work to inhibit CRH secretion by the hypothalamus, which in turn decreases anterior pituitary secretion of ACTH. ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands.
Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity.

Hyperpigmentation

hyperpigmentedPostinflammatory hyperpigmentationdarkening
(This common structure is responsible for excessively tanned skin in Addison's disease.) After a short period of time, ACTH is cleaved into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and CLIP, a peptide with unknown activity in humans.

Zona fasciculata

ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands.
Glucocorticoid production is stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is released from the anterior pituitary, especially in times of stress as part of the fight-or-flight response.

Proopiomelanocortin

pro-opiomelanocortinPOMCPOMC neurons
POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus.
The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), essential for normal steroidogenesis and the maintenance of normal adrenal weight, and β-lipotropin are the major end-products.

Evelyn M. Anderson

Evelyn Anderson
While working on her dissertation, Evelyn M. Anderson co-discovered ACTH with James Bertram Collip and David Landsborough Thomson and, in a paper published in 1933, explained its function in the body.
Evelyn M. Anderson (March 20, 1899 – June 8, 1985) was an American physiologist and biochemist, most known for her co-discovery of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adreno-cortical thyroid hormone or ACTH) in 1934.

David Landsborough Thomson

While working on her dissertation, Evelyn M. Anderson co-discovered ACTH with James Bertram Collip and David Landsborough Thomson and, in a paper published in 1933, explained its function in the body.
David Landsborough Thomson F.R.S.C., (1901 - 1964) was a Canadian biochemist, best known for the co-discovery of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adreno-cortical thyroid hormone or ACTH) and as the vice-principal of McGill University.

Nelson's syndrome

nelson syndrome
During the disorder the patient develops macroadenomas that secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

Pituitary gland

pituitaryhypophysishypophysis cerebri
Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf. POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus.
*Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland.
The adrenal gland secretes a basal level of cortisol but can also produce bursts of the hormone in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary.

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme

P450sccCYP11A1cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving)
The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located.
In adrenal cortex cells from zona fasciculata, the expression of the mRNAs encoding all three P450scc proteins is induced by corticotropin (ACTH).