Advanced Video Coding

H.264H.264/MPEG-4 AVCMPEG-4 AVCH.264/AVCAVCH264MPEG-4 Part 10H.264/MPEG-4JVTMPEG-4 AVC (H.264)
Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding.wikipedia
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Video coding format

video coding standardsvideo codingvideo coding standard
Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding.
Examples of video coding formats include H.262 (MPEG-2 Part 2), MPEG-4 Part 2, H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), HEVC (H.265), Theora, RealVideo RV40, VP9, and AV1.

ITU-T

CCITTITU Telecommunication Standardization SectorTelecommunication Standardization Sector
An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be applied to a wide variety of applications on a wide variety of networks and systems, including low and high bit rates, low and high resolution video, broadcast, DVD storage, RTP/IP packet networks, and ITU-T multimedia telephony systems. H.264 was standardized by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for videocompression, between its Member States, Private Sector Members, and Academia Members.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
H.264 is typically used for lossy compression, although it is also possible to create truly lossless-coded regions within lossy-coded pictures or to support rare use cases for which the entire encoding is lossless.
DCT is the most widely used form of lossy compression, for popular image compression formats (such as JPEG), video coding standards (such as MPEG and H.264/AVC) and audio compression formats (such as MP3 and AAC).

Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding. This was achieved with features such as a reduced-complexity integer discrete cosine transform (integer DCT), variable block-size segmentation, and multi-picture inter-picture prediction.
The integer DCT is used in Advanced Video Coding (AVC), introduced in 2003, and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), introduced in 2013.

YouTube

YouTube channelYouTube.comYouTube Gaming
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.
YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video formats, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol.

DVB-S2

Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite – Second GenerationS2Variable Coding and Modulation
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.
The development of DVB-S2 coincided with the introduction of HDTV and H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) video codecs.

Blu-ray

Blu-ray DiscBDBlu-ray 3D
H.264 is perhaps best known as being the most commonly used video encoding format on Blu-ray Discs.
The first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006.

DVB-T

Digitalterrestrialdigital broadcasting
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.
This is available from the ETSI website, as is ETSI TS 101 154, Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream, which gives details of the DVB use of source coding methods for MPEG-2 and, more recently, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as well as audio encoding systems.

Motion compensation

motion-compensatedmotion estimationmotion compensated
Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding.
Older designs such as H.261 and MPEG-1 video typically use a fixed block size, while newer ones such as H.263, MPEG-4 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and VC-1 give the encoder the ability to dynamically choose what block size will be used to represent the motion.

ATSC standards

ATSCdigitalATSC standard
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.
ATSC Standard A/72 was approved in 2008 and introduces H.264/AVC video coding to the ATSC system.

Gary Sullivan (engineer)

Gary SullivanGary J. Sullivan
VCEG was chaired by Gary Sullivan (Microsoft, formerly PictureTel, U.S.).
Gary Joseph Sullivan (born 1960) is an American electrical engineer who led the development of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC video coding standards and created the DirectX Video Acceleration (DXVA) API/DDI video decoding feature of the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Adobe Flash Player

Flash PlayerFlashXMLSocket
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.

DVB-T2

T2DVB T2DVB-T2 (where available)
It is also widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2) systems.
It was expected that over time there would be enough DVB-T2 receivers sold to switch all DTT transmissions to DVB-T2, and H.264.

MPEG LA

MPEG-LAMPEG Licensing AdministrationMPEG Licensing Authority
A license covering most (but not all) patents essential to H.264 is administered by a patent pool administered by MPEG LA.
MPEG LA is an American company based in Denver, Colorado that licenses patent pools covering essential patents required for use of the MPEG-2, MPEG-4, IEEE 1394, VC-1, ATSC, MVC, MPEG-2 Systems, AVC/H.264 and HEVC standards.

MPEG-4

MPEG4MPEG 44
The ITU-T H.264 standard and the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC standard (formally, ISO/IEC 14496-10 – MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding) are jointly maintained so that they have identical technical content.
The key parts to be aware of are MPEG-4 Part 2 (including Advanced Simple Profile, used by codecs such as DivX, Xvid, Nero Digital and 3ivx and by QuickTime 6) and MPEG-4 part 10 (MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 or Advanced Video Coding, used by the x264 encoder, Nero Digital AVC, QuickTime 7, and high-definition video media like Blu-ray Disc).

Inter frame

inter-frameinter-picture predictionB-frames
This was achieved with features such as a reduced-complexity integer discrete cosine transform (integer DCT), variable block-size segmentation, and multi-picture inter-picture prediction.
However, in newer encoding methods (such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC), B-frames may be used as reference for better exploitation of temporal redundancy.

Scalable Video Coding

SVCH.264 Scalable Video CodingScalable Video Coding (SVC)
From January 2005 to November 2007, the JVT was working on an extension of H.264/AVC towards scalability by an Annex (G) called Scalable Video Coding (SVC).
Scalable Video Coding: (SVC) is the name for the Annex G extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression standard.

Thomas Wiegand

In 2000, Thomas Wiegand (Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany) became VCEG co-chair.
Thomas Wiegand (born 6 May 1970 in Wismar) is a German electrical engineer who substantially contributed to the creation of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and H.265/MPEG-H HEVC video coding standards.

Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEGMotion Picture Experts GroupMPEG encoding
H.264 was standardized by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). In December 2001, VCEG and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11) formed a Joint Video Team (JVT), with the charter to finalize the video coding standard.
It was formed in 2001 and its main result has been H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (MPEG-4 Part 10).

Multiview Video Coding

MVCH.264 Multiview Video Codingmultiview
From July 2006 to November 2009, the JVT worked on Multiview Video Coding (MVC), an extension of H.264/AVC towards 3D television and limited-range free-viewpoint television.
It uses the 2D plus Delta method and is an amendment to the H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) video compression standard, developed jointly by MPEG and VCEG, with contributions from a number of companies, primarily Panasonic and LG Electronics.

Network Abstraction Layer

access unitNAL
For temporal bitstream scalability (i.e., the presence of a sub-bitstream with a smaller temporal sampling rate than the main bitstream), complete access units are removed from the bitstream when deriving the sub-bitstream.
The Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) is a part of the H.264/AVC and HEVC video coding standards.

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

SC 29
In December 2001, VCEG and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11) formed a Joint Video Team (JVT), with the charter to finalize the video coding standard.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 has published 475 standards, including standards for JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918-1), JPEG-2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1), MPEG-1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1), MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC 13818), MPEG-4 (ISO/IEC 14996-1), MPEG-4 AVC (ISO/IEC 14496-10), JBIG (ISO/IEC 11544), and MHEG-5 (ISO/IEC 13522-5).

VLC media player

VLCVLC playerlibVLC
) Some software programs (such as VLC media player) internally identify this standard as AVC1.
This means that VLC can play back H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 2 video as well as support FLV or MXF file formats "out of the box" using FFmpeg's libraries.

Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications

Heinrich Hertz InstituteFraunhofer Heinrich Hertz InstituteHeinrich-Hertz Institute
In 2000, Thomas Wiegand (Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany) became VCEG co-chair.
For example, institute researchers were and are involved in the development of the H.264 AVC video compression standard and its successor H.265 HEVC as part of the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG).

AVCHD

AVCHD LiteNXCAMAVCCAM
AVCHD is a high-definition recording format designed by Sony and Panasonic that uses H.264 (conforming to H.264 while adding additional application-specific features and constraints).
It is H.264 and Dolby AC-3 packaged into the MPEG transport stream, with a set of constraints designed around the camcorders.