Adverse effect

adverse effectsside effectsside effectside-effectsadverse reactionside-effectadverse eventsadverse reactionsadverse side effectAdverse effect (medicine)
An adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.wikipedia
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Side effect

side effectsside-effectsside-effect
An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

Medical error

misdiagnosedmisdiagnosismedical errors
If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication.
A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care ("iatrogenesis"), whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient.

Iatrogenesis

iatrogeniciatrogenicallyiatrogenic disease
Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic" because they are generated by a physician/treatment.
While some have advocated using the term to refer to all "events caused by the health care delivery team", whether "positive or negative", consensus limits use of iatrogenesis to adverse effects, including (in the broadest sense) all adverse unforeseen outcomes as well as foreseen outcomes from medication or other medical treatment or intervention.

Therapeutic effect

effecttherapeuticbenefit
An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect. Adverse effects, like therapeutic effects of drugs, are a function of dosage or drug levels at the target organs, so they may be avoided or decreased by means of careful and precise pharmacokinetics, the change of drug levels in the organism in function of time after administration.
An adverse effect (including nocebo) is the converse and refers to harmful or undesired response(s).

Complication (medicine)

complicationscomplicationsurgical complication
If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication.
Iatrogenic complications (from Greek, "brought forth by the healer") refers to medical treatments provided by physicians, including drugs or surgery with adverse effects that produce new health problem(s).

Systematic review

systematic reviewsreviewsystematic literature review
Because of the lack of these data and uncertainty about methods for synthesising them, individuals conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of therapeutic interventions often unknowingly overemphasise health benefit.
Systematic reviews may examine clinical tests, public health interventions, environmental interventions, social interventions, adverse effects, and economic evaluations.

Pharmacovigilance

safetydrug safetysafety profile
Adverse reaction reporting is an important component of New Zealand's pharmacovigilance activities.
Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.

Eczema vaccinatum

vaccinatum
Very rarely, there is a serious adverse effect, such as eczema vaccinatum, a severe, sometimes fatal complication which may result in persons who have eczema or atopic dermatitis.
Eczema vaccinatum is a rare severe adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination.

Serious adverse event

SAEsserious adverse reactionsSerious AEs
In clinical trials, a distinction is made between an adverse event and a serious adverse event.
An adverse effect is an adverse event which is believed to be caused by a health intervention.

MedWatch

MedWatch is the main reporting center, operated by the Food and Drug Administration.
MedWatch is used for reporting an adverse event or sentinel event.

Adverse event

adverse eventsadverse effectsadverse
In clinical trials, a distinction is made between an adverse event and a serious adverse event.

Pharmacokinetics

pharmacokineticsteady-stateSteady-state levels
Adverse effects, like therapeutic effects of drugs, are a function of dosage or drug levels at the target organs, so they may be avoided or decreased by means of careful and precise pharmacokinetics, the change of drug levels in the organism in function of time after administration.
Both together influence dosing, benefit, and adverse effects, as seen in PK/PD models.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
For example, extracts of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a phytotherapic used for treating mild depression are known to cause an increase in the cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the metabolism and elimination of many drugs, so patients taking it are likely to experience a reduction in blood levels of drugs they are taking for other purposes, such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, protease inhibitors for HIV and hormonal contraceptives.
Dosage of chemotherapy can be difficult: If the dose is too low, it will be ineffective against the tumor, whereas, at excessive doses, the toxicity (side-effects) will be intolerable to the person receiving it.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
A headache in a patient taking medication for influenza may be caused by the underlying disease or may be an adverse effect of the treatment.
The most dangerous adverse effect is a severe allergic reaction to either the virus material itself or residues from the hen eggs used to grow the influenza; however, these reactions are extremely rare.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidBufferinASA
One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.

Hypericum perforatum

St. John's wortSt John's wortSt. John’s wort
For example, extracts of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a phytotherapic used for treating mild depression are known to cause an increase in the cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the metabolism and elimination of many drugs, so patients taking it are likely to experience a reduction in blood levels of drugs they are taking for other purposes, such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, protease inhibitors for HIV and hormonal contraceptives.
The organ systems associated with adverse drug reactions to St John's wort and fluoxetine (an SSRI) have a similar incidence profile; most of these reactions involve the central nervous system.

Cytochrome P450

cytochrome P450 oxidaseP450CYP450
For example, extracts of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a phytotherapic used for treating mild depression are known to cause an increase in the cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the metabolism and elimination of many drugs, so patients taking it are likely to experience a reduction in blood levels of drugs they are taking for other purposes, such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, protease inhibitors for HIV and hormonal contraceptives.
Such drug interactions are especially important to consider when using drugs of vital importance to the patient, drugs with significant side-effects, or drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, but any drug may be subject to an altered plasma concentration due to altered drug metabolism.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Vaccination may have adverse effects due to the nature of its biological preparation, sometimes using attenuated pathogens and toxins.
It is widely accepted that the benefits of preventing serious illness and death from infectious diseases greatly outweigh the risks of rare serious adverse effects following immunization.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
MedWatch is the main reporting center, operated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Difficulty tolerating adverse effects is the most common reason for antidepressant discontinuation.

Minimally invasive procedure

minimally invasiveminimally invasive surgerynon-invasive
Presently, one of the greatest advantages of minimally invasive surgery, such as laparoscopic surgery, is the reduction of adverse effects.
Minimally invasive surgery should have less operative trauma, other complications and adverse effects than an equivalent open surgery.

Alternative medicine

complementary and alternative medicineholistic healthintegrative medicine
Drug-drug and food-drug interactions may occur, and so-called "natural drugs" used in alternative medicine can have dangerous adverse effects.
Patients can be averse to the painful, unpleasant, and sometimes-dangerous side effects of biomedical treatments.

Ephedra

ma huangEphedra sp.ephedra-based
Adverse effects of ephedra consumption may include severe skin reactions, irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, insomnia, profuse perspiration, dehydration, itchy scalp and skin, vomiting, and hyperthermia.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIs
A 2018 review found low-quality evidence that SSRIs, including paroxetine, sertraline, and fluoxetine, were more effective than placebo for treating panic disorder, although only one person in seven benefits, due mainly to the side effects of these drugs.

Patient safety

safetymedication safetyPatient Safety Leadership
Patient safety is a discipline that emphasizes safety in health care through the prevention, reduction, reporting, and analysis of medical error that often leads to adverse effects.