Aesop's Fables

AesopAesop's fableFablesAesop fableFableFables of AesopAesop’s FablesÆsop's FablesAesop's eponymous worksAesop's Foibles
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.wikipedia
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Aesop

ÆsopAisōposEzopi
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.
Aesop (, ; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.

The Frogs Who Desired a King

The Frogs ask Zeus for a KingLes Grenouilles qui Demandent un Roithe frogs who asked for a king
Setting the context was often necessary as a guide to the story's interpretation, as in the case of the political meaning of The Frogs Who Desired a King and The Frogs and the Sun.
The Frogs Who Desired a King is one of Aesop's Fables and numbered 44 in the Perry Index.

The Ant and the Grasshopper

Anthopperclassic Aesop fableThe Dragonfly and the Ants
In this they have an aetiological function, the explaining of origins such as, in another context, why the ant is a mean, thieving creature or how the tortoise got its shell. At the most, some traditional fables are adapted and reinterpreted: The Lion and the Mouse is continued and given a new ending (fable 52); The Oak and the Reed becomes "The Elm and the Willow" (53); The Ant and the Grasshopper is adapted as "The Gnat and the Bee" (94) with the difference that the gnat offers to teach music to the bee's children.
The Ant and the Grasshopper, alternatively titled The Grasshopper and the Ant (or Ants), is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 373 in the Perry Index.

The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse

The City Mouse and the Country MouseThe Country Mouse and the City MouseTown Mouse and Country Mouse
Sometimes the titles given later to the fables have become proverbial, as in the case of killing the Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs or the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse.
The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse is one of Aesop's Fables.

The Frogs and the Sun

The sun and the frogs
Setting the context was often necessary as a guide to the story's interpretation, as in the case of the political meaning of The Frogs Who Desired a King and The Frogs and the Sun.
The Frogs and the Sun is one of Aesop's Fables and is numbered 314 in the Perry Index.

The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs

The Goose that Laid the Golden Egggolden eggGoose that Laid the Golden Eggs
Sometimes the titles given later to the fables have become proverbial, as in the case of killing the Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs or the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse.
It refers to one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 87 in the Perry Index, a story that also has a number of Eastern analogues.

Perry Index

B. E. PerryBen E. Perrycredited to Aesop
Loeb editor Ben E. Perry took the extreme position in his book Babrius and Phaedrus (1965) that
The Perry Index is a widely used index of "Aesop's Fables" or "Aesopica", the fables credited to Aesop, the storyteller who lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BC. Modern scholarship takes the view that Aesop probably did not compose all of the fables attributed to him; indeed, a few are known to have first been used before Aesop lived, while the first record we have of many others is from well over a millennium after his time.

Zeus and the Tortoise

Chelonehow the tortoise got its shell
In this they have an aetiological function, the explaining of origins such as, in another context, why the ant is a mean, thieving creature or how the tortoise got its shell.
Zeus and the Tortoise appears among Aesop’s Fables and explains how the tortoise got her shell.

The Woodcutter and the Trees

The Forest and the Woodcutter
The contradictions between fables already mentioned and alternative versions of much the same fable – as in the case of The Woodcutter and the Trees, are best explained by the ascription to Aesop of all examples of the genre.
The title of The Woodcutter and the Trees covers a complex of fables of Greek and West Asian origin that are ascribed to Aesop.

The Wolf and the Crane

The Wolf and the HeronThe Lion and the Woodpecker
Thus, the fable "The Wolf and the Crane" is told in India of a lion and another bird.
The Wolf and the Crane is a fable attributed to Aesop that has several eastern analogues.

The Old Woman and the Doctor

Of the olde woman that had sore eiesThe Old Woman and the Thieving Physician
Other fables, also verging on this function, are outright jokes, as in the case of The Old Woman and the Doctor, aimed at greedy practitioners of medicine.
The Old Woman and the Doctor (or Physician) is a story of Greek origin that was included among Aesop's Fables and later in the 4th century CE joke book, the Philogelos.

Phaedrus (fabulist)

Phaedrus PhaedrusGaius Julius Phaedrus
Some cannot be dated any earlier than Babrius and Phaedrus, several centuries after Aesop, and yet others even later.
Gaius Julius Phaedrus (was a 1st-century CE Roman fabulist and the first versifier of a collection of Aesop's fables into Latin.

Babrius

Some cannot be dated any earlier than Babrius and Phaedrus, several centuries after Aesop, and yet others even later.
Babrius (, Bábrios; century), also known as Babrias or Gabrias, was the author of a collection of Greek fables, many of which are known today as Aesop's Fables.

The Lion and the Mouse

Aesop's fableHow a mouse freed an elephantthat of an Aesop's fable
At the most, some traditional fables are adapted and reinterpreted: The Lion and the Mouse is continued and given a new ending (fable 52); The Oak and the Reed becomes "The Elm and the Willow" (53); The Ant and the Grasshopper is adapted as "The Gnat and the Bee" (94) with the difference that the gnat offers to teach music to the bee's children.
The Lion and the Mouse is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 150 in the Perry Index.

The Oak and the Reed

the Tree and the Reed
At the most, some traditional fables are adapted and reinterpreted: The Lion and the Mouse is continued and given a new ending (fable 52); The Oak and the Reed becomes "The Elm and the Willow" (53); The Ant and the Grasshopper is adapted as "The Gnat and the Bee" (94) with the difference that the gnat offers to teach music to the bee's children.
The Oak and the Reed is one of Aesop's Fables and is numbered 70 in the Perry Index.

The Young Man and the Swallow

The Prodigal Young Man and the Swallow
In fact some fables, such as The Young Man and the Swallow, appear to have been invented as illustrations of already existing proverbs.
The young man and the swallow (which also has the Victorian title of "The spendthrift and the swallow") is one of Aesop's Fables and is numbered 169 in the Perry Index.

Gabriele Faerno

There were later three notable collections of fables in verse, among which the most influential was Gabriele Faerno's Centum Fabulae (1564).
He was a scrupulous scholar and an elegant Latin poet who is best known now for his collection of Aesop's Fables in Latin verse.

The Walnut Tree

The Nut Tree
There are also Mediaeval tales such as The Mice in Council (195) and stories created to support popular proverbs such as 'Still Waters Run Deep' (5) and 'A woman, an ass and a walnut tree' (65), where the latter refers back to Aesop's fable of The Walnut Tree.
The fable of The Walnut Tree is one of Aesop's and numbered 250 in the Perry Index.

The drowned woman and her husband

Of hym that sought his wyfe, that was drowned agaynst the streme
The majority of the hundred fables there are Aesop's but there are also humorous tales such as The drowned woman and her husband (41) and The miller, his son and the donkey (100).
It was occasionally included in collections of Aesop's Fables but never became established as such and has no number in the Perry Index.

The Lion, the Bear and the Fox

Lion and BearThe Jackal and the OttersThe thieves and the ass
It also includes the earliest instance of The Lion, the Bear and the Fox (60) in a language other than Greek.
The Lion, the Bear and the Fox is one of Aesop's Fables that is numbered 147 in the Perry Index.

Romulus (fabulist)

Romuluselegiac RomulusRomulus Anglicus
The largest, oldest known and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus bears the name of an otherwise unknown fabulist named Romulus.
Romulus is the author, now considered a legendary figure, of versions of Aesop's Fables in Latin.

The Dog in the Manger

Dog in the mangerdog in a manger
This too contained some from elsewhere, such as The Dog in the Manger (67).
Although the story was ascribed to Aesop's Fables in the 15th century, there is no ancient source that does so.

The miller, his son and the donkey

fableFather, Son, and DonkeyGoha
The majority of the hundred fables there are Aesop's but there are also humorous tales such as The drowned woman and her husband (41) and The miller, his son and the donkey (100).
Since then it has been frequently included in collections of Aesop's fables as well as the influential Fables of Jean de la Fontaine.

Gualterus Anglicus

Walter of EnglandAnonymus Neveleti
Referred to variously (among other titles) as the verse Romulus or elegiac Romulus, and ascribed to Gualterus Anglicus, it was a common Latin teaching text and was popular well into the Renaissance.
Gualterus Anglicus (Medieval Latin for Walter the Englishman ) was an Anglo-Norman poet and scribe who produced a seminal version of Aesop's Fables (in distichs) around the year 1175.

The Hawk and the Nightingale

Hawk and Nightingalehawk parableThe kite and the nightingale
The 152 poems there were grouped by subject, with sometimes more than one devoted to the same fable, although presenting alternative versions of it, as in the case of The Hawk and the Nightingale (133-5).
The original version is numbered 4 in the Perry Index and the later Aesop version, sometimes going under the title "The Hawk, the Nightingale and the Birdcatcher", is numbered 567.