Aether (classical element)

aetheretherquintessencefifth elementætherNullthe etherAether" or "Quintessenceaethericethereal
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (, aither ), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.wikipedia
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Vacuum

free spaceevacuatedhigh vacuum
In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum, but evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson–Morley experiment, and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists.
While outer space provides the most rarefied example of a naturally occurring partial vacuum, the heavens were originally thought to be seamlessly filled by a rigid indestructible material called aether.

Sublunary sphere

sublunaryregion of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motionssublunar
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (, aither ), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Beginning with the Moon, up to the limits of the universe, everything (to classical astronomy) was permanent, regular and unchanging – the region of aether where the planets and stars are located.

Air (classical element)

airWindAerial Calamity
In Greek mythology, it was thought to be the pure essence that the gods breathed, filling the space where they lived, analogous to the air breathed by mortals.
Aristotle definitively separated air from aether.

Classical element

four elementsclassical elementselements
However, in his Book On the Heavens he introduced a new "first" element to the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts of earth, water, air, fire, and (later) aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.

Aristotelian physics

AristotelianphysicsAristotelian theory of gravity
Aether did not follow Aristotelian physics either.
The celestial spheres were made of a fifth element, an unchangeable aether.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Aristotle, who had been Plato's student at the Akademia, agreed on this point with his former mentor, emphasizing additionally that fire sometimes has been mistaken for aether.
Aristotle's scheme added the heavenly Aether, the divine substance of the heavenly spheres, stars and planets.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
However, in his Book On the Heavens he introduced a new "first" element to the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy.
This initial state is ageless and imperishable, and everything returns to it according to necessity Anaximenes in turn held that the arche was air, although John Burnet argues that by this he meant that it was a transparent mist, the aether.

On the Heavens

De CaeloAristotelian cosmologyAristotelian model
However, in his Book On the Heavens he introduced a new "first" element to the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy.
The latter are composed of one or all of the four classical elements (earth, water, air, fire) and are perishable; but the matter of which the heavens are made is imperishable aether, so they are not subject to generation and corruption.

Luminiferous aether

aetherluminiferous etherether
In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum, but evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson–Morley experiment, and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists.
The only similarity of this relativistic aether concept with the classical aether models lies in the presence of physical properties in space, which can be identified through geodesics.

Alchemy

alchemistalchemicalalchemists
Over the years, the term quintessence has become synonymous with elixirs, medicinal alchemy, and the philosopher's stone itself.
His original system consisted of seven elements, which included the five classical elements (aether, air, earth, fire, and water) in addition to two chemical elements representing the metals: sulphur, "the stone which burns", which characterized the principle of combustibility, and mercury, which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties.

Akasha

AkashĀkāśaAakash
Akasha (Sanskrit आकाश) is a term for either space or æther in traditional Indian cosmology, depending on the religion.

Celestial spheres

celestial sphereplanetary spherescelestial
In these celestial models, the apparent motions of the fixed stars and planets are accounted for by treating them as embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence), like jewels set in orbs.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

PrincipiaPhilosophiae Naturalis Principia MathematicaPrincipia Mathematica
It was used in one of Sir Isaac Newton's first published theories of gravitation, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (the Principia).
Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether.

Etheric body

ethericVital Bodyetheric bodies
The classical element Aether of Platonic and Aristotlean physics continued in Victorian scientific proposals of a Luminiferous ether as well as the cognate chemical substance ether.

Etheric force

Edison believed it was the mysterious force that some believed pervaded the ether.

Johann II Bernoulli

Bernoulli, Johann IIJohann IIJohann II. Bernoulli
The use of aether to describe this motion was popular during the 17th and 18th centuries, including a theory proposed by Johann II Bernoulli, who was recognized in 1736 with the prize of the French Academy.
In 1736 he was awarded the prize of the French Academy for his suggestive studies of aether.

Quintessence (physics)

quintessencedark energy
One proposed model of dark energy has been named "quintessence" by its proponents, in honor of the classical element.
Aristotle called this element aether, that had to be a pure, fine and primigenial element.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (, aither ), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.

Universe

physical worldThe Universeuniverses
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (, aither ), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.

Michelson–Morley experiment

Michelson-Morley experimentMichelson-MorleyMichelson–Morley
In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum, but evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson–Morley experiment, and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists.

Homeric Greek

HomericHomeric dialectEpic Greek
The word αἰθήρ (aithēr) in Homeric Greek means "pure, fresh air" or "clear sky".

Greek mythology

GreekGreek mythmythological
In Greek mythology, it was thought to be the pure essence that the gods breathed, filling the space where they lived, analogous to the air breathed by mortals.

Aether (mythology)

AetherAitherEther
It is also personified as a deity, Aether, the son of Erebus and Nyx in traditional Greek mythology.

Erebus

ErebosScotuspersonification of darkness
It is also personified as a deity, Aether, the son of Erebus and Nyx in traditional Greek mythology.