Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarityaffirmativenegatedgrammatical polaritynegativesAffirmationaffirmative and negativecircumfixal negation
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.wikipedia
198 Related Articles

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Yes and no

noyesyes" or "no
Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.
Yes and no, or word pairs with a similar usage, are expressions of the affirmative and the negative, respectively, in several languages including English.

Grammatical particle

particleparticlesgrammatical particles
Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
In standard Modern English, negation is achieved by adding not after an auxiliary verb (which here means one of a special grammatical class of verbs that also includes forms of the copula be; see English auxiliaries).
In English, verbs are often classed as auxiliaries on the basis of certain grammatical properties, particularly as regards their syntax – primarily whether they participate in subject–auxiliary inversion, and can be negated by the simple addition of not after them.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.
Grammatical polarity

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere
Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate.
As noted above under, a finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word not after an auxiliary, modal or other "special" verb such as do, can or be.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
Different rules apply in subjunctive, imperative and non-finite clauses.
There may also be differences of syntax between affirmative and negative imperative sentences.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammar
Other examples of negating particles preceding the verb phrase include Italian non, Russian не nye and Polish nie (they can also be found in constructed languages: ne in Esperanto and non in Interlingua).
2) The genitive is used for possessor and similar (equivalent to English "of X" or "X's"), for the direct object of negated verbs, as the object of some verbs and prepositions, as an object with partitive meaning and in some fixed expressions, and for nouns governed by certain numbers and expressions of quantity (see Numbers and quantifiers above).

Jespersen's Cycle

Jespersen's Cycle
Jespersen's Cycle (JC) is a series of processes in historical linguistics, which describe the historical development of the expression of negation in a variety of languages, from a simple pre-verbal marker of negation, through a discontinuous marker (elements both before and after the verb) and in some cases through subsequent loss of the original pre-verbal marker.

Polarity item

negative polaritynegative polarity itemNegative Polarity Items
Polarity item
In linguistics, a polarity item is a lexical item that can appear only in environments associated with a particular grammatical polarity – affirmative or negative.

Veridicality

veridicalnonveridicalitynonveridic
Veridicality
Negation is veridical, though of opposite polarity, sometimes called antiveridical: "Paul didn't see a snake" asserts that the statement "Paul saw a snake" is false.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
There also exist elements which carry a specialized negative meaning, including pronouns such as nobody, none and nothing, determiners such as no (as in "no apples"), and adverbs such as never, no longer and nowhere.
Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things. (Nobody thinks that.)

English modal verbs

modal verbswoulddouble modal
The negation "must not" has a stronger meaning (the effect is to apply the logical negation to the following infinitive rather than to the full clause with must). For more details and other similar cases, see the relevant sections of English modal verbs.
Like other auxiliaries, modal verbs are negated by the addition of the word not after them.

Negation

NOTlogical negationnegated
Simple grammatical negation of a clause in principle has the effect of converting a proposition to its logical negation – replacing an assertion that something is the case by an assertion that it is not the case.
Grammatical polarity

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Verb phrase

verb phrasesVPphrases
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Utterance

utterancesexpressionexpressions
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Truth

truetheory of truthtruth theory
Essentially an affirmative (positive) form is used to express the validity or truth of a basic assertion, while a negative form expresses its falsity.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
The grammatical category associated and with affirmative and negative is called polarity. This means that a sentence, verb phrase, etc. may be said to have either affirmative or negative polarity (its polarity may be either affirmative or negative).

Affix

suffixaffixessuffixes
Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate.