Affirmative action in the United States

affirmative actionaffirmativeminority quotasracial and gender preferencesracial preferences (affirmative action) in public school admissionsthey needed black kidsUnited States of America
Affirmative action in the United States is a set of laws, policies, guidelines, and administrative practices "intended to end and correct the effects of a specific form of discrimination" that include government-mandated, government-sanctioned and voluntary private programs.wikipedia
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Grutter v. Bollinger

Grutterdefending affirmative actionGrutter v Bollinger
However, Texas's ban with Hopwood v. Texas was reversed in 2003 by Grutter v. Bollinger, leaving eight states that currently ban the policy. Affirmative action as a practice was partially upheld by the Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), while the use of racial quotas for college admissions was concurrently ruled unconstitutional by the Court in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003).
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003), was a landmark case of the Supreme Court of the United States concerning affirmative action in student admissions.

Fisher v. University of Texas (2013)

Fisher v. University of TexasFisher v. University of Texas'' (2013)Abigail Fisher
Fisher v. University of Texas, 570 U.S. ___ (2013), also known as Fisher I (to distinguish it from the 2016 case), is a United States Supreme Court case concerning the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Texas at Austin.

Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action

6–2 decisionSchuette v. BAMN
Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. 291 (2014), was a case before the United States Supreme Court concerning affirmative action and race- and sex-based discrimination in public university admissions.

University of Michigan

MichiganUniversity of Michigan, Ann ArborUniversity of Michigan at Ann Arbor
In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M's affirmative action admissions policy reached the U.S. Supreme Court (Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger).

Presidency of Ronald Reagan

Reagan administrationReagan RevolutionReagan
While the Reagan administration opposed discriminatory practices, it did not support the implementation of it in the form of quotas and goals (Executive Order 11246).
He also reluctantly accepted the continuation of affirmative action programs and the establishment of Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a federal holiday.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Affirmative action as a practice was partially upheld by the Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), while the use of racial quotas for college admissions was concurrently ruled unconstitutional by the Court in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003).
It also expanded Griswold's right to privacy to strike down abortion laws (Roe v. Wade), but divided deeply on affirmative action (Regents of the University of California v. Bakke) and campaign finance regulation (Buckley v. Valeo).

DeFunis v. Odegaard

DeFunis argued that materials brought to light during discovery and entered into evidence in the trial court showed that his initial denial of admission to the law school was the result of the operation of the law school's affirmative action policy, favoring the admission of minority applicants over better-qualified white candidates.

Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke

Regents of the University of California v. BakkeAllan BakkeBakke
In 1978, the Supreme Court ruled in Bakke v. Regents that public universities (and other government institutions) could not set specific numerical targets based on race for admissions or employment.
It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy.

Executive Order 10925

10925Executive Order No. 10925President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity
Shortly after taking office, Kennedy issued Executive Order 10925 in March 1961, requiring government contractors to "consider and recommend additional affirmative steps which should be taken by executive departments and agencies to realize more fully the national policy of nondiscrimination…. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin".

Walter J. Leonard

In the early 1970s, Walter J. Leonard, an administrator at Harvard University, invented the Harvard Plan, "one of the country's earliest and most effective affirmative-action programs, which became a model for other universities around the country."
As an administrator at Harvard University, he pioneered affirmative action in admissions.

Clarence Thomas

ThomasJustice ThomasJustice Clarence Thomas
Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, the only current black Justice, opposes affirmative action.
He said that potential employers assumed he obtained it because of affirmative action policies.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
The category of Native American applies to the diverse group of people who lived in North America before European settlement.
Federal contractors and subcontractors, such as businesses and educational institutions, are legally required to adopt equal opportunity employment and affirmative action measures intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin".

Legacy preferences

legacylegacy preferencelegacy student
Race, ethnicity, native language, social class, geographical origin, parental attendance of the university in question (legacy admissions), and/or gender are sometimes taken into account when the university assesses an applicant's grades and test scores.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Civil Rights ActTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Title VII
These debates led to federal executive orders requiring non-discrimination in the employment policies of some government agencies and contractors in the 1940s and onward, and to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibited racial discrimination in firms with over 25 employees.

Reverse discrimination

reverse racismaffirmative actiondefensive
Some commentators have defined reverse discrimination as a policy or practice in which members of a majority are discriminated against in favor of a historically disadvantaged group or minority.
Affirmative action in the United States has been a subject of controversy and litigation.

Senate Constitutional Amendment No. 5

California Senate Constitutional Amendment 5California Senate Constitutional Amendment No.5Senate Constitutional Amendment No.5
Senate President pro Tempore Darrell Steinberg also issued a statement stating that he is a supporter of SCA 5: "I look forward to working with Senator Hernandez, my Senate colleagues, and the Assembly in bringing all communities together for a serious and sober examination of Affirmative Action."

Thomas Espenshade

Thomas J. Espenshade
His 2009 book No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life, co-authored with Alexandria Walton Radford, explores the issue of affirmative action in the United States from a quantitative perspective.

2015 federal complaints against Harvard University's alleged discriminatory admission practices

Students for Fair Admissions v. Harvard2015 Federal Complaints Against Harvard University's Alleged Discriminatory Admission Practicefederal complaints
In May 2015, a coalition of more than 60 Asian-American organizations filed [[2015 Federal Complaints Against Harvard University's Alleged Discriminatory Admission Practice|federal complaints]] with the Education and Justice Departments against Harvard University.

Race and ethnicity in the United States

raceRace in the United Statesancestry
The programs tend to focus on access to education and employment, granting special consideration to historically excluded groups, specifically racial minorities or women.

Women in the United States

American womenUnited Stateswomen
The programs tend to focus on access to education and employment, granting special consideration to historically excluded groups, specifically racial minorities or women.

Affirmative action

positive discriminationemployment equityaffirmative-action
The impetus toward affirmative action is redressing the disadvantages associated with past and present discrimination.

Outreach

community outreachpublic outreacheducational outreach
Outreach campaigns, targeted recruitment, employee and management development, and employee support programs are examples of affirmative action in employment.

Recruitment

recruiterrecruitinghiring
Outreach campaigns, targeted recruitment, employee and management development, and employee support programs are examples of affirmative action in employment.

Management development

masters in development management
Outreach campaigns, targeted recruitment, employee and management development, and employee support programs are examples of affirmative action in employment.