Afghanistan

Tents of Afghan nomads in the northern Badghis province of Afghanistan. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
The extent of the Indus Valley Civilization during its mature phase
A "Bactrian gold" Scythian belt depicting Dionysus, from Tillya Tepe in the ancient region of Bactria
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, formed by the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Empire, circa 180 BCE
Saffarid rule at its greatest extent under Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
Mongol invasions and conquests depopulated large areas of Afghanistan
Map of the Hotak Empire during the Reign of Mirwais Hotak, 1715.
Map of the Hotak Empire at its height in 1728. Disputed between Hussain Hotak (Centered in Kandahar) and Ashraf Hotak (centered in Isfahan)
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani c. 1757.
Afghan tribesmen in 1841, painted by British officer James Rattray
Map of Afghanistan (Emirate) and surrounding nations in 1860, following the conquest of [[Principality of Qandahar|
Kandahar]], and before the conquest of Herat.
Emir Amanullah invaded British India in 1919 and proclaimed Afghanistan's full independence thereafter. He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan in June 1926.
King Zahir, the last reigning monarch of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 until 1973.
Development of the civil war from 1992 to late 2001
U.S. troops and Chinooks in Afghanistan, 2008
A map of Afghanistan showing the 2021 Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul on a captured Humvee following the 2021 fall of Kabul.
The mountainous topography of Afghanistan
Köppen climate map of Afghanistan
The snow leopard was the official national animal of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
A 2005 CIA map showing traditional Afghan tribal territories. Pashtun tribes form the world's largest tribal society.
Ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan (2001)
Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif is the largest mosque in Afghanistan
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2018
The Daoud Khan Military Hospital in Kabul is one of the largest hospitals in Afghanistan
The Arg (the Presidential palace) in Kabul
U.S. representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) meeting with Taliban leaders, Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai, Suhail Shaheen, unidentified. Doha, Qatar on 21 November 2020.
Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, which are further divided into a number of districts
Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan is famous for in Asia
Afghan rugs are one of Afghanistan's main exports
Afghan saffron has been recognized as the world's best
Lapis lazuli stones
Afghanistan electricity supply 1980–2019
Band-e Amir National Park
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, currently under threat by erosion and flooding
The Salang Tunnel, once the highest tunnel in the world, provides a key connection between the north and south of the country
An Ariana Afghan Airlines Airbus A310 in 2006
An Afghan family near Kholm, 1939 – most Afghans are tribal
A house occupied by nomadic kochi people in Nangarhar Province
Kabul skyline, displaying both historical and contemporary buildings
A traditional Afghan embroidery pattern
The Afghan rubab
Non (bread) from a local baker, the most widely consumed bread in Afghanistan
Haft Mewa (Seven Fruit Syrup) is popularly consumed during Nowruz in Afghanistan
The ancient national sport of Afghanistan, Buzkashi

Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

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Hindu Kush (top right) and its extending mountain ranges like Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh or Koh-i-Baba to the west

Hindu Kush

800 km mountain range in Central and South Asia to the west of the Himalayas.

800 km mountain range in Central and South Asia to the west of the Himalayas.

Hindu Kush (top right) and its extending mountain ranges like Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh or Koh-i-Baba to the west
Aerial view of Hindu Kush mountains in northern Afghanistan
Terraced fields amongst the Hindu Kush in the Swat valley, Pakistan
The Hindu Kush photographed by Apollo 9
A land cover map of the HKH region was developed using Landsat 30-meter data.
Kabul, situated 5900 ft above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu Kush mountains
Hindu Kush relative to Bactria, Bamiyan, Kabul and Gandhara (bottom right).
Landscape of Afghanistan with a T-62 in the foreground.
Hindu Kush in the background in Ishkoshim, Tajikistan

It stretches from central and western Afghanistan into northwestern Pakistan and far southeastern Tajikistan.

A group of Hazaras watching USACE soldiers inspect a project site in Daykundi Province

Hazaras

A group of Hazaras watching USACE soldiers inspect a project site in Daykundi Province
A 1430 Persian miniature depicting Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü
Miniature of Emir Muhammad Khwaja
An 1879 portrait of a Dai Zangi Hazara
Abdul Khaliq Hazara, who assassinated King Nadir Khan
Abdul Ali Mazari, leader of the Hizbe-Wahdat party during and following the Soviet–Afghan War
The Bamyan Valley, the site of the Buddhas of Bamyan
Qazi Muhammad Essa, Jinnah's close associate and a key figure of the All-India Muslim League in Balochistan
Photograph of ethnic Hazara men in Behsud
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan
Muhammad Musa Khan from Quetta, Pakistan. He served the army chief of Pakistan Army in 1958–66
Hazara girl in traditional clothing
Dawood Sarkhosh is a Hazara cultural musician
A gathering of Hazaras on the final day of Ramadan in Daykundi, Afghanistan
Abul Fazl Mosque in Murad Khane, Kabul during construction in 2008
Rohullah Nikpai, two-time Olympic bronze medalist in the sport of Taekwondo
Zohib Islam Amiri, is a professional Hazara footballer who is currently playing for the Afghanistan national football team
Moshtagh Yaghoubi, is a Hazara-born Finnish footballer who plays for HIFK
Karim Khalili, 2nd Vice President of Afghanistan (with turban) is standing next to Mohammed Fahim, George W. Bush, facing Hamid Karzai
Habiba Sarabi and Laura Bush meeting Afghan National Police commander in Bamyan, Afghanistan
Nasrullah Sadiqi Zada Nili is the representative of the people Daykundi province in the fifteenth and sixteenth parliamentary sessions of the Afghanistan Parliament
Abbas Noyan is a politician, who served as a member of the Afghanistan Parliament, representative of the people of Kabul province from 2005 to 2010. He is the current Afghanistan's ambassador to Sweden<ref>{{Cite web|last=Anonym|title="The people will fight the Taliban" {{!}} tellerreport.com|url=https://www.tellerreport.com/news/2021-08-12-%22the-people-will-fight-the-taliban%22.SJNVGbl7eK.html|access-date=2021-09-03|website=www.tellerreport.com|language=en}}</ref>
Maryam Monsef is an ethnic Hazara Afghan Canadian politician. She was the Minister for Women and Gender Equality in Canada

The Hazaras are an ethnic group and the principal component of the population of Afghanistan, native to, and primarily residing in the Hazarajat region in central Afghanistan and generally scattered throughout Afghanistan.

Tajik children

Tajiks

About the Central Asian native Persian-speakers known as Tajiks.

About the Central Asian native Persian-speakers known as Tajiks.

Tajik children
Tajiks
Tajiks in Bamiyan, Afghanistan
The Samanid Empire (819–999) is considered the first Tajik state
Haft-Seen, White House ceremony for new Persian Year, prepared by Laura Bush.
Burhanuddin Rabbani served as President of Afghanistan
View of the Registan in Samarkand – although the second largest city of Uzbekistan, it is predominantly a Tajik populated city, along with Bukhara.
Tajik woman
Tajik Republic coat of Arms with Persian language: جمهوری اجتماعی شوروى مختار تاجيكستان
Balkh Governor Atta Muhammad Nur after visiting the Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif's in northern Afghanistan.
Tajiks celebrates Mehregan in Dushanbe park

Tajiks (, Tājīk, Tājek; Тоҷик) are a Persian-speaking Iranian ethnic group native to Central Asia, living primarily in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

Kabul

Kushan Empire
Buddha statue at the museum in Kabul, early 1st millennium
Map showing names of the regions during the 7th century.
Humayun with his father Babur, emperors of the Mughal Empire
Old painting showing the Great Wall of Kabul
Shujah Shah Durrani, the last Durrani King, sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar
Chihil Sutun Palace (also known as "Hendaki"), one of numerous palaces built by the Emir in the 19th century
Etching of Kabul by an Italian artist, 1885
Dilkusha Palace, built in European style in the 1900s
The river bank in the center of Kabul in the 1960s
People and traffic in a part of Kabul, 1976
Center of Kabul in 1979; the Pul-e Khishti bridge crosses the Kabul River to the old city in the south bank
Taj Beg Palace in 1987, the Soviet Army headquarters during the Soviet–Afghan War
Kabul's Jada-e Maiwand in 1993, showing destruction caused by the civil war.
Modern high-rises built in the 2010s
Night scene in Kabul in 2016 looking northeast, with Koh-e 'Aliabad on the left and Koh-e Asamai on the right
Qargha dam and lake
A view of some of the mountains that surround Kabul
Location of Kabul Municipality within Kabul Province
Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur
Houses built on mountains
Afghan girls in Kabul in 2012
Ghazi Stadium
Arg, the Presidential Palace in Kabul
Marketplace in central Kabul
Inside an antiquity shop in Kabul's famous Chicken Street (Kochi Murgha)
Studio of Radio Kabul in the 1950s
The Kabul Bird Market (Ka Foroshi)
National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Archives
Bibi Mahro Park
Italian baroque style of Shah Do Shamshira
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani (early 19th century rebuilt)
Flightline at Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul International Airport), 2012
Traffic in Kabul city center in 2013
A Toyota Corolla (E100) at a security checkpoint in 2010
Kabul Medical University
Kabul Education University of Rabbani
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital
16th-century mosque inside the Gardens of Babur
The Taq-e Zafar in Paghman
The Minaret of Knowledge and Ignorance,<ref>{{lang-prs|منار علم و جهل}}</ref> built in the 1920s on a hill in Deh Mazang, commemorating king Amanullah's victory over the Mullah-e Lang in the Khost rebellion
Mausoleum of emir Abdur Rahman Khan, Zarnegar Park
Minaret of the Unknown Corps, memorial of the 1880 Battle of Maiwand
Buddhist stupa of Guldara
Royal Mausoleum at Maranjan hill
The Tang-e Gharu canyon east of Kabul
Traditional hill dwellings
"Old Mikroyan", 1960s built
Ministry of Finance and Khyber Restaurant (1966)
Pamir Cinema building (Agricultural Development Bank)
thumb|Pashtany Bank and the brutalist Kabul Tower
Andarabi Road dwellings on the riverbank
Apartments built in the 2000s with contemporary Afghanese style
Kabul city announced open calls through the Kabul municipality’s HP and its Facebook page, to participate in town meeting and planning process
Kabul mayor Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy speaking with league management during the inauguration ceremony of first ever internet-based solid waste discussion league in 2021
A memorandum of understanding signed by Kabul City mayor Ahmad Zaki Sarfaraz and Nagoya Institute of Technology executive director in 2019

Kabul (, ; Dari: , ) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Uzbek people at a market in Khiva, Uzbekistan.

Uzbeks

The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, Ўзбек, اوزبک, plural: Oʻzbeklar, Ўзбеклар, اوزبکلر) are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area.

The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, Ўзбек, اوزبک, plural: Oʻzbeklar, Ўзбеклар, اوزبکلر) are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area.

Uzbek people at a market in Khiva, Uzbekistan.
Female statuette bearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the 2nd millennium BC
Turkish officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.
Clothing of Uzbek men, Khiva
Timur feasts in Samarkand
Ulugbeg with ladies of his harem and retainers,1425-1450.
Shaybani Khan, 1507
A lithograph of two Uzbek Khans from Afghanistan in 1841.
The Defence of the Samarkand Citadel in 1868. From the Russian Illustrated Magazine "Niva" (1872).
Uzbek Mulla Dzhan Turdi Ali, Uncle of the Kokand Khan's Older Son, 19th century
Uzbek students after graduation
Uzbek elders
Uzbek family in the United States
Ibrahim Bek, revolutionary leader against the Soviet Union, in 1920
Traditional Uzbek costume circa 1840s
Uzbek children, in traditional clothing 19th-20th cen.
Women in school uniform, Samarkand, 2008
An Uzbek man wearing a skullcap, otherwise known as doppa or tyubeteika
thumb|Early coin of Tegin Shah, in the style of the Nezak Huns, whom he displaced. Tokharistan, late 7th century CE.
Trilingual coin of Tegin Shah towards the end of his reign. Tokharistan,728 CE

They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, and China.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan

Pashtuns

Peştûn

Peştûn

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan
A map of Pashtun tribes
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE
Head of a Saka warrior
Pactyans, present day Pashtunistan. The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26)
Heads of two males, discovered in Hadda (Pashto: هډه) 10km south of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Dated 3-4th century CE.
Bactrian document in the Greek script from the 4th century mentioning the word Afghan (αβγανανο): "To Ormuzd Bunukan from Bredag Watanan, the chief of the Afghans"
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi
Malala Yousafzai, a Pashtana, recipient of 2014 Nobel Peace Prize
American diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad with Taliban officials Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai and Suhail Shaheen
President Hamid Karzai and Abdul Rahim Wardak
From left to right: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai; Anwar ul-Haq Ahady; and Abdullah Abdullah
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and former Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.
Pashtun-inhabited areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan (green) in 1980
Ethnolinguistic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 1982
Pashtun female festive dress in Faryab, Afghanistan
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.
Shahid Afridi, former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team
Buzkashi in Afghanistan
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda, 5th century CE
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak(also known as Kirka Sharif), and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Two Pashtane (Pashtun women) from Kuch i tribe pictured in 1967 on the Helmand river (د هلمند سيند)
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films

The Pashtun people are indigenous to a historical region known as Pashtunistan, which stretches across southern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan and hosts the majority of their global population.

South Asia

Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Various definitions of South Asia, including the definition by UNSD which was created for "statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."
United Nations cartographic map of South Asia. However, the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries.
While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600–1900 BCE, the mature phase
The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer
Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398
Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court, 1650
British Indian Empire in 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
South Asia's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.
Ethno-linguistic distribution map of South Asia
Mumbai is the financial capital of India with GDP of $400 billion
GDP per capita development in South Asia
Durbar High School, oldest secondary school of Nepal, established in 1854 CE
Lower class school in Sri Lanka
College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan
IInstitute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Nepal
Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah, Afghanistan

The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.;

Sport fans inside the Ghazi Stadium in the capital of Kabul, which is multi-ethnic and the largest city of Afghanistan.

Demographics of Afghanistan

Sport fans inside the Ghazi Stadium in the capital of Kabul, which is multi-ethnic and the largest city of Afghanistan.
Population pyramid 2016
Young Afghans at a music festival inside the Gardens of Babur in Kabul.
An Afghan family from the Pashtun tribe in their home in Kabul
Gathering of students in 2006 at a school in Nangarhar Province.
A CIA map showing the various Afghan tribal territories
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan in 2001
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan in 1982
Afghan politicians and foreign diplomats praying at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul.

The population of Afghanistan is around 40 million as of 2021.

1979 Afghan postage stamp commemorating the leftist Saur Revolution

War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

1979 Afghan postage stamp commemorating the leftist Saur Revolution
Afghan guerrilla leader Ahmad Shah Massoud (right) with the Pashtun anti-Taliban leader and later Vice President of the Karzai administration, Haji Abdul Qadir
The military situation of the Afghan Civil War in 1996 between the Taliban (red) and the Northern Alliance (blue)
Ahmad Shah Massoud was assassinated by Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan's Takhar Province on 9 September 2001
Ground Zero in New York following the attacks of 11 September 2001
US Army Special Forces and US Air Force Combat Controllers with Northern Alliance troops on horseback, Samangan Province
American and British special forces operators at Tora Bora, 2001
US Humvee crossing water in 2002
Map detailing the spread of the Taliban insurgency, 2002–2006
US troops board a helicopter in Zabul province, 2003
A US Navy Corpsman searches for Taliban fighters in Mihtarlam, spring of 2005
3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment at the Khost-Gardez Pass, 2004
An Apache helicopter provides protection from the air, Lwar Kowndalan in Kandahar, October 2005
A US Army soldier from 10th Mountain Division, patrols Aranas
Swedish Army medic in the Mazar-e Sharif region
A US soldier conducts a mountain patrol in Nuristan Province
US and British troops during a patrol in Helmand Province
Chinooks transporting troops to Bagram
Development of ISAF troop strength
A German Bundeswehr soldier, part of ISAF's Regional Command North at Camp Marmal
Burning hashish seized in Operation Albatross, a combined operation of Afghan officials, NATO and the DEA
Barack Obama with Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari in 2009
A US soldier and an Afghan interpreter in Zabul, 2009
Former Taliban fighters turn in their weapons as part of a reintegration program in Ghor Province
UK service members of the Royal Air Force Regiment stop on a road while conducting a combat mission near Kandahar Airfield
Australian and Afghan soldiers patrol the poppy fields in the Baluchi Valley Region, April 2010.
Coalition forces conducting an airdrop in Shahjoy District, Zabul
Troops from the 31st and 33rd Kandak, Afghan National Army, execute a departure for Operation Valley Flood
US soldiers walk by local Afghan boys during a patrol in Gardez
US Army soldiers boarding a Black Hawk in Nari District, near the Pakistani border
An Australian service light armored vehicle drives through Tangi Valley, 29 March 2011
Afghan Army units neutralizes an IED in Sangin, Helmand province
Soldiers from the Michigan Army National Guard and the Latvian Army patrol through a village in Konar province.
Resolute Support Colors presented at Kabul on 28 December 2014, after the ISAF colors are encased
Russian made Mil Mi-8 chopper landing at Forward Operating Base Airborne to deliver mail and supplies
Green Berets of the 10th SFG memorialize two comrades who were killed in action during the Battle of Boz Qandahari on 2–3 November 2016
Actress Scarlett Johansson meets with US service members during a troop engagement at Forward Operation Base Gamberi, Afghanistan, December 2016
US Army soldier in Nangarhar Province, 6 January 2015
TAAC-E advisers in February 2015
A USAF F-16 Fighting Falcon takes off at Bagram Airfield for a combat sortie, 14 March 2016
USAF pilots fly a CH-47 Chinook in Nangarhar, April 2017
Map showing insurgent (white) and government-controlled (red) areas of Afghanistan in January 2019.
US, British and Afghan security forces train together in an aerial reaction force exercise at Camp Qargha in Kabul, 16 January 2018.
US representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) and Taliban representative Abdul Ghani Baradar (right) sign the Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan in Doha, Qatar on 29 February 2020
NATO's Resolute Support Mission commander Austin S. Miller alongside US Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin in Afghanistan, March 2021
A map of Afghanistan showing the Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul, 17 August 2021
Victims of the Narang night raid that killed at least 10 Afghan civilians, December 2009
Gathering outside Afghan embassy in Tehran to condemn the 2021 Kabul school bombing
Foreign donated clothing being handed out by an Afghan civil officer to children at a refugee camp, 2011
Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares)
A young Afghan girl in Qalat pictured by the 116th Infantry Battalion before receiving school supplies in 2011
Afghan boy murdered on 15 January 2010 by a group of US Army soldiers called the Kill Team
Hamid Karzai and Barack Obama in 2009
Afghan Commandos practice infiltration techniques, 1 April 2010 at Camp Morehead in the outer regions of Kabul.
Soldiers from the Afghan army patrolling a village in Khost Province in 2010
US Marines and ANA soldiers take cover in Marja on 13 February 2010 during their offensive to secure the city from the Taliban.
An Afghan soldier surveying a valley during an anti-Taliban operation
A-29 plane of the Afghan Air Force
A US marine interacting with Afghan children in Helmand Province
22 June 2007 demonstration in Québec City against the Canadian military involvement in Afghanistan
Taliban fighters at a market in Kabul, September 2021. A vendor selling Islamic Emirate flags can be seen.

The War in Afghanistan was a conflict that took place from 2001 to 2021 in the South-Central Asian country of Afghanistan.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan Plateau in South India.