Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghansAfghaniAFGAFAfghan Islamic RepublicHotaki DynastyPersiaSouth Afghanistan
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari: افغانستان, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country in Asia.wikipedia
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Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast.
Pakistan has a 1,046 km coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast.

Dari

Dari PersianDari languageDari-Persian
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari: افغانستان, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country in Asia.
Darī or Dari Persian (فارسی دری, Fārsī-ye Darī, ) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی, Fārsī, ) is a variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast.
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.

Kabul

Kabul, AfghanistanNeighborhood of KabulKabul City
Kabul is the capital and largest city.
Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Tajikistan

TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast.
It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east.

Turkmenistan

TurkmenTurkmeniaRepublic of Turkmenistan
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast.
Turkmenistan ( or ; Türkmenistan, ) is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Uzbekistan

UzbekUZBRepublic of Uzbekistan
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast.
Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

Invasions of Afghanistan

invaded AfghanistanInvasion of Afghanistanwars against the British
The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviets, and by the United States with allied countries.
Afghanistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia and Middle East.

Uzbeks

UzbekUzbek peopleUzbeki
The population is 32 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks.
They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia and China.

Mughal Empire

MughalMughalsMughal India
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India.

Durand Line

Afghanistan-Pakistan borderAfghan borderborder
Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947.
The Durand Line is an international 2430 km border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Kushan Empire

KushanKushansKushana
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan, and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great.

The Great Game

Great Gamestrategic reasonsImperial Era
In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the 19th century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and South Asia.

Durrani dynasty

DurranisDurraniDurani
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
The Durrani dynasty (also known as Sadozai dynasty) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan.

Taliban

Afghan Talibanthe TalibanTaleban
By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban (undefined, ' "students") or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA'''), are a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organization in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

Ghaznavids

Ghaznavid EmpireGhaznavidGhaznavid dynasty
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
The Ghaznavid dynasty ( ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

Mujahideen

mujahidAfghan mujahideenmujahedin
This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels.
The modern term of mujahideen referring to spiritual Muslim warriors, originates in the 19th century when some tribal leaders in Afghanistan fought against the British attempts to stop raids on India (although initially the British derogatorally called them the Sitana Fanatics).

-stan

-stān-istanEstan
The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian.
It appears in the names of many regions in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central and South Asia, as well as in the Caucasus and Russia.

Islamic republic

Islamic stateIslamic governmentIslamic regime
Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Mauritania.

Demographics of Afghanistan

AfghanAfghansDemography of Afghanistan
However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
The population of Afghanistan is around 37,135,635 in 2019, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.

Samanid Empire

SamanidsSamanidSamanid dynasty
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
The empire was centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana during its existence; at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, large parts of Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and parts of Kazakhstan and Pakistan.

Kandahar

QandaharKandahar, AfghanistanKandahar City
Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization.
Kāndahār or Qāndahār (کندهار; ; known in older literature as Candahar) is a city located in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.

Maurya Empire

Mauryan EmpireMauryanMaurya
The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviets, and by the United States with allied countries.
At its greatest extent, the empire stretched along the natural boundary of the Himalayas, to the east into Assam, to the west into Balochistan (southwest Pakistan and southeast Iran) and the Hindu Kush mountains of what is now eastern Afghanistan.

Khalji dynasty

KhaljiKhaljisKhilji dynasty
The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.
The Khaljis were of Turko-Afghan origin: a Turkic people that had settled in Afghanistan before moving to Delhi.

Constitution of Afghanistan

Afghan Constitutionconstitution2004 constitution
However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens.