Africa

AfricanAfrican continentAfrican countriescontinentAfrica continentDark ContinentpoliticsAfroEast AfricaNorth Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).wikipedia
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Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa.

Red Sea

Redthe Red SeaErythraean Sea
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea, البحر الأحمر) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Atlantic Ocean

AtlanticNorth AtlanticAtlantic coast
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoWestern Indian Ocean
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastMediterranean islands
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, and in the south by Africa.

Algeria

🇩🇿AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.
With an area of 2381741 km2, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in Africa.

Southern Hemisphere

SouthernaustralS. Hemisphere
The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, the southern third of Africa, and several southern islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationin Africa
In the late 19th century, European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.

Ethiopia

🇪🇹AbyssiniaEthiopian
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
With over million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent.

African Union

AUAfrican Union (AU)the African Union
African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 countries of the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa.

New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
In the late 19th century, European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century.
During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa and parts of Asia.

Afri

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).
Afri (singular Afer) was a Latin name for the inhabitants of Africa, referring in its widest sense to all the lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).

World population

human populationworld's populationglobal population
billion people as of, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population.
Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1.28 billion people, or 16% of the world's population.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharansub-Saharan
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
The Sahara (, ; الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is a desert located on the African continent.

Sub-Saharan Africa

sub-Saharansub-Saharan Africansub-Sahara
At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia.
The sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

Southern Africa

SouthernSouth Africasouthern African
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

Southeast Africa

SoutheastSoutheasternSoutheast African
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.
Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.

East Africa

Easteastern AfricaEastern
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

West Africa

Westwestern AfricaWestern
This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.
West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa.

Nubia

NubianAncient NubiansLower Nubia
In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.
It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward with the Kerma culture.

European exploration of Africa

exploration of Africaexplorer of AfricaPortuguese explorers
European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans.
The Cape of Good Hope was first reached by Bartolomeu Dias on 12 March 1488, opening the important sea route to India and the Far East, but European exploration of Africa itself remained very limited during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Horn of Africa

Hornnortheast AfricaNortheast African
These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.
The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent.

Strait of Gibraltar

straitsstraits of GibraltarStrait
These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.

Hunter-gatherer

hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens approximately 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers.
Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, and also independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Andes.

Paleoanthropology

paleoanthropologistpaleoanthropologicalpaleoanthropologists
Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent.
Since the great apes were considered the closest relatives of human beings, based on morphological similarity, in the 19th century, it was speculated that the closest living relatives to humans were chimpanzees (genus Pan) and gorilla (genus Gorilla), and based on the natural range of these creatures, it was surmised that humans shared a common ancestor with African apes and that fossils of these ancestors would ultimately be found in Africa.