Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politicsAfrican countriescontinentAfrica continentDark ContinentpoliticsPolitics of AfricaAfricans
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent.wikipedia
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Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west, and Australia to the east.

Red Sea

Redthe Red SeaErythraean Sea
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.
The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Atlantic Ocean

AtlanticNorth AtlanticNorth Atlantic Ocean
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
It covers an area of about 2.5 e6km2, representing 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km wide.

Algeria

AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaAlgérie
Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.
With an area of 2381741 km2, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in the Arab world and Africa.

Southern Hemisphere

SouthernaustralS. Hemisphere
The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
With over million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent with a total area of 1,100,000 km2.

African Union

AUthe African UnionAfrica Union
African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).
The Nile (النيل, written as al-Nīl; pronounced as an-Nīl) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world, as the Brazilian government says that the Amazon River is longer than the Nile.

New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
In the late 19th century, European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa emerged from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century.
During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa and parts of Asia.

Afri

AferAfridi (Carthage)
Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).
Afri (singular Afer) was a Latin name for the inhabitants of Africa, referring in its widest sense to all the lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).

World population

human populationglobal populationworld's population
billion people as of, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population.
Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1.28 billion people, or 16% of the world's population.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharanSaharan Desert
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
The Sahara (, ; الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Greatest Desert') is a desert located on the African continent.

Sub-Saharan Africa

sub-SaharanSub Saharan AfricaSub-Saharan African
At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

Southern Africa

SouthernSouthern AfricanSouth Africa
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

Southeast Africa

SoutheastSoutheasternSoutheastern Africa
Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.

East Africa

Eastern AfricaEastEastern
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.

Homo erectus

H. erectusDmanisi ManPithecanthropus erectus'' (later redesignated ''Homo erectus'')
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.

West Africa

West AfricanWestWestern Africa
This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.
West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa.

Egypt

EgyptianEGYArab Republic of Egypt
Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade networks had been established by this date.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined.

Africa (Roman province)

AfricaAfrica ProconsularisRoman North Africa
Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the northwest African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

Nubia

NubianChristian Nubiaancient Nubians
In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.
It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, as the Kerma culture lasted from around 2500 BCE until its conquest by the New Kingdom of Egypt under pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BCE.

Strait of Gibraltar

Straits of GibraltarGibraltar Straitstraits
These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق; Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa.

European exploration of Africa

exploration of Africaexplorer of AfricaPortuguese explorers
European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans.
The Cape of Good Hope was first reached by Bartolomeu Dias on 12 March 1488, opening the important sea route to India and the Far East, but European exploration of Africa itself remained very limited during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Mauritania

Islamic Republic of MauritaniaMauritaneanMauritanian
In West Africa, Dhar Tichitt and Oualata in present-day Mauritania figure prominently among the early urban centers, dated to 2,000 BC.
It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.