Africa

The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew
Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Diachronic map showing African empires spanning roughly 500 BCE to 1500 CE
The Ezana Stone records King Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various neighboring peoples, including Meroë.
The intricate 9th-century bronzes from Igbo-Ukwu, in Nigeria displayed a level of technical accomplishment that was notably more advanced than European bronze casting of the same period.
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)
Major slave trading regions of Africa, 15th–19th centuries.
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
Topography of Africa
Today, the African Plate is moving over Earth's surface at a speed of 0.292° ± 0.007° per million years, relative to the "average" Earth (NNR-MORVEL56)
The main biomes in Africa.
Africa Water Precipitation
Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
African countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2020
A map showing religious distribution in Africa
A simplistic view of language families spoken in Africa
The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nok figure (5th century BC-5th century AD)
A musician from South Africa
Best results of African men's national football teams at the FIFA World Cup
An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950–2011
Africa's wars and conflicts, 1980–96 {{legend|#cc4c02|Major Wars/Conflict (100,000 + Casualties)}}{{legend|#fe9929|Minor Wars/Conflict}}{{legend|#fed98e|Other Conflicts}}
Political map of Africa in 2021

World's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases.

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Nigeria

Country in West Africa.

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Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
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1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Climate map of Nigeria
Palm plantation in Delta State
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Substation in Abuja
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
The Abuja National Mosque
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
A hospital in Abuja
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

It is the most populous country in Africa.

African Union

Map showing the traditional language families represented in Africa
Muammar Gaddafi embracing Tanzanian President Kikwete after assuming the chairmanship
Billboard in Niamey (Niger) announcing the 33rd AU Summit (2019)
African Union Representational Mission in Washington, D.C.
Emblem of the African Union
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (formerly GSPC) area of operations
South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011
Kenyan soldiers and fighters of the Ras Kamboni Brigades, a Somali government-allied militia, near Kismayo, Somalia, 2012

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa.

Mediterranean Sea

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The Mediterranean Sea covers an area of about 2500000 km2, representing 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates the Iberian Peninsula in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km wide.

Continent

Any of several large landmasses.

Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. Depending on the convention and model, some continents may be consolidated or subdivided: for example, Eurasia is most often subdivided into Asia and Europe (red shades), while North and South America are sometimes recognised as one American continent (green shades)
Map of island countries: these states are often grouped geographically with a neighbouring continental landmass
Reconstruction of the supercontinent Pangaea approximately 200 million years ago.
The Indian subcontinent
The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
Medieval T and O map showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah—Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth), and Africa to Cham (Ham).
Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map—the first to show the Americas separate from Asia
Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu based on voyages by Abel Tasman and Willem Jansz, this image shows a French edition of 1663
Principal tectonic plates of the continents and the floor of the oceans

Ordered from largest in area to smallest, these seven regions are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

Southern Hemisphere

Half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

The Southern Hemisphere from above the South Pole
The Southern Hemisphere highlighted in yellow. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image because Antarctica is not shown and the Equator slightly too low, but in reality are the same size.
Aurora australis appearing in the night sky of Swifts Creek, 100 km north of Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia
Aurora australis appearing from Stewart Island / Rakiura in the south of New Zealand
A photo of Earth from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble) with the south pole at the top and the continent of Africa.

It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, approx. one third of Africa, and some islands off the continental mainland of Asia) and four oceans (Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, and South Pacific Ocean), as well as New Zealand and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.

Ceuta

Phoenician archeological site, dated to the 7th centuryBC, next to the Cathedral of Ceuta
The Berber Baths of Ceuta, built between the 11th and 13th centuries
The Marinid Walls, built by Abu Sa'id Uthman II in 1328
Representation of Prince Henry the Navigator during the Conquest of Ceuta in azulejos at the São Bento railway station
1572 depiction of Ceuta
The Royal Walls of Ceuta, built from 962 to the 18th century, and navigable moats
Eclectic House of the Dragons, built in 1905
Fort of the Desnarigado, built in the 19th century. It houses a museum.
Bastion of la Coraza Alta on the shore of the Playa del Chorrillo beach
A street in Ceuta, c. 1905–1910
The Palacio de la Asamblea de Ceuta is the seat of the Assembly of Ceuta.
Ceuta products treemap, 2020
The Moroccan mountain of Jebel Musa, as viewed from Benzú. It is also known as the 'Dead Woman' because of its silhouette.
Remains of the Late Roman Christian Basilica and Necropolis of Ceuta, dated to the mid-4th century AD or the beginning of the 5th century AD
Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, completed in 1726

Ceuta (,, ; ; سَبْتَة) is a Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa.

Tunisia

Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site
statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal barca
roman Mosaic Ulysses Bardo National Museum
Uqba ibn Nafi led the Umayyad conquest of Tunisia in the late 7th century
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535
St Louis Cathedral - Carthage - Tunisia - 1899
British tank moves through Tunis after the city was taken from Axis troops, 8 May 1943
Habib Bourguiba was the first president of Tunisia, from 1957 to 1987
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution
Köppen climate classification in Tunisia. The climate is Mediterranean towards the coast in the north, while most of the country is desert.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Soldiers of the Tunisian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Tunisia exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
Population pyramid
Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899
Tunisian students
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
City of Culture in Tunis
Abdelwahab Meddeb, a Tunisian French-language poet and novelist.
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in Tunis Theater
Headquarters of Télévision Tunisienne since March 2010
Stade Hammadi Agrebi in Radès.

Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia, is the northernmost country in Africa.

Libya

Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Archaeological site of Sabratha, Libya
Leptis Magna
The Atiq Mosque in Awjila is the oldest mosque in the Sahara.
The Siege of Tripoli in 1551 allowed the Ottomans to capture the city from the Knights of St. John.
The USS Enterprise of the Mediterranean Squadron capturing a Tripolitan Corsair during the First Barbary War, 1801
A US Navy expedition under Commodore Edward Preble engaging gunboats and fortifications in Tripoli, 1804
Omar Mukhtar was a prominent leader of Libyan resistance in Cyrenaica against Italian colonization.
Italian propaganda postcard depicting the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911.
King Idris I of the Senussi order became the first head of state of Libya in 1951.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969
Versions of the Libyan flag in modern history
The no-fly zone over Libya as well as bases and warships which were involved in the 2011 military intervention
Areas of control in the Civil War, updated 11 June 2020:
Location dot red.svg Tobruk-led Government Location dot lime.svg Government of National Accord Location dot blue.svg Petroleum Facilities Guard Location dot yellow.svg Tuareg tribes Location dot orange.svg Local forces
Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the head of the Libyan National Army, one of the main factions in the 2014 civil war.
A map of Libya
Libya map of Köppen climate classification
Libya is a predominantly desert country. Up to 90% of the land area is covered in desert.
UK Foreign Secretary William Hague with Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, November 2013
Districts of Libya since 2007
Change in per capita GDP of Libya, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Libya exports, 2019
Pivot irrigation in Kufra, southeast Cyrenaica
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.
Libyan men in Bayda.
Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi – the location of the University of Libya's first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya in 1974
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border.
Ancient Roman mosaic in Sabratha
Bazeen

With an area of almost 700,000 square miles (1.8 million km2), it is the fourth-largest country in Africa and the Arab world, and the 16th-largest in the world.

Prime meridian

Meridian in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.

Gerardus Mercator in his Atlas Cosmographicae (1595) used a prime meridian somewhere close to 25°W, passing just to the west of Santa Maria Island in the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean. His 180th meridian runs along the Strait of Anián (Bering Strait)
Ptolemy's 1st projection, redrawn under Maximus Planudes around 1300, using a prime meridian through the Canary Islands west of Africa. (The obvious central line is the junction of two sheets).
Facsimile of Diego Ribeiro's map of 1529; the original is in the Vatican Library.
1571 Africa map by Abraham Ortelius, with Cape Verde as its prime meridian.
1682 map of East Asia by Giacomo Cantelli, with Cape Verde as its prime meridian; Japan is thus located around 180° E.
Markings of the Greenwich meridian at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

The main point is to be comfortably west of the western tip of Africa (17.5° W) as negative numbers were not yet in use.

East Africa

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911

East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern subregion of the African continent.