The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew
Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression
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Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Diachronic map showing African empires spanning roughly 500 BCE to 1500 CE
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
The Ezana Stone records King Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various neighboring peoples, including Meroë.
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
The intricate 9th-century bronzes from Igbo-Ukwu, in Nigeria displayed a level of technical accomplishment that was notably more advanced than European bronze casting of the same period.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
Major slave trading regions of Africa, 15th–19th centuries.
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Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Topography of Africa
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
Today, the African Plate is moving over Earth's surface at a speed of 0.292° ± 0.007° per million years, relative to the "average" Earth (NNR-MORVEL56)
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
The main biomes in Africa.
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Africa Water Precipitation
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
African countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2020
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
A map showing religious distribution in Africa
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
A simplistic view of language families spoken in Africa
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Nok figure (5th century BC-5th century AD)
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
A musician from South Africa
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Best results of African men's national football teams at the FIFA World Cup
Climate map of Nigeria
An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950–2011
Palm plantation in Delta State
Africa's wars and conflicts, 1980–96 {{legend|#cc4c02|Major Wars/Conflict (100,000 + Casualties)}}{{legend|#fe9929|Minor Wars/Conflict}}{{legend|#fed98e|Other Conflicts}}
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Political map of Africa in 2021
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Substation in Abuja
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
The Abuja National Mosque
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
A hospital in Abuja
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

It is the most populous country in Africa.

- Nigeria

Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population.

- Africa

18 related topics

Alpha

Camels trample the soil in the semiarid Sahel as they move to water holes, such as this one in Chad

Sahel

Camels trample the soil in the semiarid Sahel as they move to water holes, such as this one in Chad
The lush green of the rainy season Sahelian forest, along the Bamako-Kayes Road in Mali. The trees in the foreground are acacia. Note the large baobab tree.
Herders with livestock and azawakh dogs in the Sahel
Ennedi Plateau is located at the border of the Sahara and the Sahel
Fulani herders in Mali
1905 depiction of ethnic groups in the Sahel

The Sahel (ساحل sāḥil, "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic realm of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian savanna to the south.

The Sahel part of Africa includes from west to east parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, Cameroon and Central African Republic, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea and Ethiopia.

A group of Yoruba people at a public event

Yoruba people

A group of Yoruba people at a public event
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Degree of Presence of The Yoruba and derived' Ede 
groups in Nigeria, Benin & Togo at Subnational levels
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Palace of the King of Oyo circa 1900s - Colorized
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Anna Hinderer church and mission house at Ibadan, 1850s
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Yoruba door, wood carvings; used to record events c. 1910
Early 19th century Yoruba architecture showing their unique inner courtyard layout used as a safe space for storing livestock and a space where children could play
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Gbedu drummers
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Wooden Ere Ibeji figures representing twins. Yorubas have the highest twinning rate in the world.
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An older traditional Agbada clothing historically worn by Yoruba men. This exhibit was obtained in the town of Òkukù.
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African Languages Spoken in American Households
Commemoration of Black consciousness, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Amala is a Yoruba food.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=amala|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Akara is a Yoruba bean fritter.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=akara|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Ofada rice is a Yoruba dish.<ref name="Olusegun Obasanjo 1983">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Management_in_Agriculture_Rural_Developm/JdrSAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22ofada%20rice%22|title=Management in Agriculture & Rural Development: A Practicioner's View|author=Olusegun Obasanjo|date=1983|isbn=9789782399243}}</ref>
Ofada rice is traditionally in a leaf.
Moin Moin is a Yoruba steamed bean pudding.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Adim%C3%BA/w3r4Xx2059AC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22moin+moin%22|title=Adimú: Gbogbó Tén'unjé Lukumí|author=Miguel Willie Ramos|publisher=Eleda.Org Publications|date=July 2012|isbn=9781877845109}}</ref>
A collection of foods eaten by Yorubas in general
Simple Iro and Buba with Gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Fundamentals_of_Nigerian_Marketing/JfbTAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22iro+and+buba%22&dq=%22iro+and+buba%22&printsec=frontcover|title=Fundamentals of Nigerian Marketing|author=Esogwa C. Osuala|date=1988|publisher=Pacific Publishers|isbn=9789782347299}}</ref>
Agbádá àti Fìlà<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Yoruba_Dress/CzAqd4vGphoC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=agbada+and+fila&dq=agbada+and+fila&printsec=frontcover|title=Yoruba Dress: A Systematic Case Study of Five Generations of a Lagos Family|author=Betty Marguerite Wass|date=1975|publisher=Michigan State University. Department of Family Ecology|isbn=9789782347299|pages=143–183}}</ref>
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele. Blouse, wrapper and headgear<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>
Bùbá àti Kèmbè. Agbada top with short baggy pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Handbook_of_Nigerian_Culture/n1AuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=kembe|title=A Handbook of Nigerian Culture|author1=Frank Aig-Imoukhuede|author2=Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|date=1992|publisher=Department of Culture, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|isbn=9789783131613|page=134}}</ref>
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele made from Òfì<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Aso_Oke_Yoruba/bH5djwEACAAJ?hl=en|title=Aso Oke Yoruba: A Tapestry of Love & Color, a Journey of Personal Discovery|author=Tola Adenle|date=February 2, 2016|publisher=CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform|isbn=9781523495221}}</ref>
Agbádá àti Sóró, Agbada and long slim pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Lekki/o9EuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=They%20wear%20dresses%20like|title=Lekki|author=Bola researcher/writer Sebastian|date=1992|publisher=Public Information Department, Lagos State Ministry of Information, Culture, Youth & Sports|page=3}}</ref>
Ìró and Bùbá with gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>

The Yoruba people (Ìran Yorùbá, Ọmọ Odùduwà, Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire) are a West African ethnic group that mainly inhabits parts of Nigeria, Benin and Togo that constitute Yorubaland.

The Yorubas constitute more than 46 million people in Africa, are a few hundred thousand outside the continent, and bear further representation among members of the African diaspora.

The main slave routes in medieval Africa

Slavery in Africa

The main slave routes in medieval Africa
A Zanj slave gang in Zanzibar (1889)
Slaves for sacrifice at the Annual Customs of Dahomey – from The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa, 1793
Malagasy slaves (Andevo) carrying Queen Ranavalona I of Madagascar
Nubians waiting to be sold at a slave market in ancient Egypt.
Release of Christian slaves by payment of ransom by Catholic monks in Algiers in 1661.
Burning of a Village in Africa, and Capture of its Inhabitants (p.12, February 1859, XVI)
Christian slavery in Barbary.
Black Zanjs captured in a slave raid being marched to a slave market in the Arab world.
A 'servant-slave' woman in Mogadishu (1882–1883)
Slaves in Ethiopia, 19th century.
A slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876
Elderly female slave, c. 1911/15, owned by Njapundunke, mother of the Bamum king Ibrahim Njoya
Homann Heirs map of the slave trade in West Africa, from Senegal and Cape Blanc to Guinea, the Cacongo and Barbela rivers, and Ghana Lake on the Niger River as far as Regio Auri (1743)
A slave trader of Gorée, c. 1797
Zanzibari slave trader Tippu Tip owned 10,000 slaves.
The Door of No Return in Ouidah. Memorial to the slave trade through the port of Ouidah.
Swahili-Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique, 19th century
African slaves working in 17th-century Virginia, by an unknown artist, 1670
Jean-Baptiste Debret's conception of enslaved persons in Brazil (1839)
Slave trade along the Senegal River, kingdom of Cayor
Capture of slave ship Emanuela by.
Slave trade out of Africa, 1500–1900
Photograph of a slave boy in Zanzibar. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence.' c. 1890.
Cowrie shells were used as money in the slave trade
Two slightly differing Okpoho Manillas as used to purchase slaves

Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa.

Sacrifices were common in the Benin Empire, in what is now Ghana, and in the small independent states in what is now southern Nigeria.

Furnace remains, Nok Village, Kaduna State

Nok culture

Furnace remains, Nok Village, Kaduna State

The Nok culture (or Nok civilization) is a population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928.

In the maritime history of Africa, there is the earlier Dufuna canoe, which was constructed approximately 8000 years ago in the northern region of Nigeria; as the second earliest form of water vessel known in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Nok terracotta depiction of a dugout canoe was created in the central region of Nigeria during the first millennium BCE.

African Union

Map showing the traditional language families represented in Africa
Muammar Gaddafi embracing Tanzanian President Kikwete after assuming the chairmanship
Billboard in Niamey (Niger) announcing the 33rd AU Summit (2019)
African Union Representational Mission in Washington, D.C.
Emblem of the African Union
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (formerly GSPC) area of operations
South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011
Kenyan soldiers and fighters of the Ras Kamboni Brigades, a Somali government-allied militia, near Kismayo, Somalia, 2012

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa.

A number of AU member states led by Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Rwanda requested that the AU recognise the NTC as Libya's interim governing authority, and several other AU member states have recognised the NTC regardless of the Peace and Security Council's decision.

Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe

West Africa

Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe
13th-century Africa – Map of the main trade routes and states, kingdoms and empires.
West Africa circa 1875
French in West Africa circa 1913
A rhinoceros in Bandia Nature Reserve, Senegal. Credit: Corine REZEL.
African bush elephants in Yankari National Park, Nigeria
Deforestation in Nigeria.
Satellite imagery from outer space of West Africa
Railway systems in West Africa, 2022
Railway systems in West Africa 2030, projection
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A street and airport in the famous town of Timbuktu, Mali, showing the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style of the West African interior
Philip Emeagwali wearing the Boubou (or Agbada), a traditional robe symbolic of West Africa
Jollof rice or Benachin, one of many Pan–West African dishes found only in West Africa
Supporters of ASEC Mimosas
The talking drum is an instrument unique to West Africa.
Kora-playing griots in Senegal, 1900. Both the Kora, a 21-stringed harp-lute, and the griot musical-caste are unique to West Africa.
The 13th-century Great Mosque of Djenné is a superb example of the indigenous Sahelian architectural style prevalent in the Savannah and Sahelian interior of West Africa. It is listed an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Voodoo altar with several fetishes in Abomey, Benin
Map of petroleum and natural gas within West Africa
Praia, Cape Verde
Dakar, Senegal
Lomé, Togo
Porto-Novo, Benin
Niamey, Niger
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Freetown, Sierra Leone
Banjul, Gambia
Conakry, Guinea
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
Monrovia, Liberia
Bamako, Mali
Georgetown, Ascension Island
Tristan da Cunha, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa.

The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo as well as Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Igbo people

The Igbo people (, also ; also spelled Ibo and formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo;

The Igbo people (, also ; also spelled Ibo and formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo;

Bronze from the ninth century town of Igbo Ukwu, now at the British Museum
An Igbo man with facial scarifications, known as ichi, early 20th century
Three Igbo women in the early 20th century
Flag of the Republic of Biafra (1967–1970), sometimes regarded as the ethnic flag of the Igbo
Anklet beaten from a solid brass bar of the type once fashionable among Igbo women. Now in the collection of Wolverhampton Art Gallery. The leg-tube extends approx 7 cm each side of the 35 cm disc.
Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is the most popular and renowned novel that deals with the Igbo and their traditional life.
Thatching with palm leaf mats, early 20th century
Traditional Igbo house/room from the Anambra area, 1967
Wooden sculpture of Ikenga, an Alusi, in the Musée du Quai Branly.
The Holy Ghost depicted as a dove on a relief in Onitsha
A modern Igbo wedding, Nnewi, Nigeria
Men wearing contemporary Isiagu with the ceremonial Igbo men's hat okpu agu
striped men's hat
Yam porridge (or yam pottage) is an Igbo dish known as awaị.
Igbo people celebrating the New Yam festival in Dublin, Ireland

natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group in Nigeria.

Prominent Igbo communities outside Africa include those of London in the United Kingdom and Houston, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Seattle, Atlanta and Washington, D.C. in the United States.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Geographical map of sub-Saharan Africa.
Red: Arab states in Africa (Arab League and UNESCO).
Simplified climatic map of Africa: sub-Saharan Africa consists of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa in the north (yellow), the tropical savannas (light green) and the tropical rainforests (dark green) of Equatorial Africa, and the arid Kalahari Basin (yellow) and the "Mediterranean" south coast (olive) of Southern Africa. The numbers shown correspond to the dates of all Iron Age artifacts associated with the Bantu expansion.
Ethnographic map of Africa, from Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (1932).
Climate zones of Africa, showing the ecological break between the hot desert climate of North Africa and the Horn of Africa (red), the hot semi-arid climate of the Sahel and areas surrounding deserts (orange) and the tropical climate of Central and Western Africa (blue). Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia and Botswana.
Stone chopping tool from Olduvai Gorge.
Nok sculpture, terracotta, Louvre.
Fictionalised portrait of Nzinga, queen of the Ndongo and Matamba kingdoms.
Sphinx of the Nubian Emperor Taharqa.
Stone city of Gondershe, Somalia.
Fasilides Castle, Ethiopia.
The Tongoni Ruins south of Tanga in Tanzania
Great Zimbabwe: Tower in the Great Enclosure.
Population density in Africa, 2006.
Fertility rates and life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa.
Yoruba drummers (Niger-Congo).
A San man (Khoisan).
Maasai women and children (Nilo-Saharan).
Saho women (Afroasiatic).
A Boer European African family (Indo-European).
Lagos
Nairobi
Johannesburg
The Athlone Power Station in Cape Town, South Africa.
Energy sources in sub-Saharan Africa. Fossil Fuels and hydroelectric power make up the largest share of sub-Saharan African electricity.
Skyline of Libreville, Gabon.
Downtown Luanda, Angola.
Phenakite from the Jos Plateau, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Agricultural fields in Rwanda's Eastern Province.
The Naute Fruit Farm at the Naute Dam outside of Keetmanshoop, Namibia.
The University of Botswana's Earth Science building in Gaborone, Botswana.
The University of Antananarivo in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
The Komfo Anokye Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.
Estimated prevalence in % of HIV among young adults (15–49) per country as of 2011.
Ifá divination and its four digit binary code.
Two Bambara Chiwara c. undefined late 19th / early 20th centuries. Female (left) and male Vertical styles.
A traditional polyrhythmic kalimba.
A plate of fufu accompanied with peanut soup.
Ugali and cabbage.
This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine.
The Akan Kente cloth patterns.
Kangas
The Stade Félix Houphouët-Boigny in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
The Namibia rugby team.
Geo-political map of Africa divided for ethnomusicological purposes, after Alan P. Merriam, 1959.

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.

Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

World Bank

International financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.

International financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.

Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The Gold Room at the Mount Washington Hotel where the International Monetary Fund and World Bank were established
The World Bank Group headquarters building in Washington, D.C.

UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health, nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, and Africa".

Most developed countries' voting power was reduced, along with a few developing countries such as Nigeria.

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Official language

Language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

Language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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A bilingual Soviet-era street name sign in the two de facto official languages of the Latvian SSR (Latvian and Russian)

An instance is Nigeria which has three endoglossic official languages.

In spatial terms, indigenous (endoglossic) languages are mostly employed in the function of official (state) languages in Eurasia, while mainly non-indigenous (exoglossic) imperial (European) languages fulfill this function in most of the "Rest of the World" (that is, in Africa, the Americas, Australia and Oceania).