A report on AfricaNigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa

The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew
Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression
Geographical map of sub-Saharan Africa.
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
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Red: Arab states in Africa (Arab League and UNESCO).
Diachronic map showing African empires spanning roughly 500 BCE to 1500 CE
Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Simplified climatic map of Africa: sub-Saharan Africa consists of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa in the north (yellow), the tropical savannas (light green) and the tropical rainforests (dark green) of Equatorial Africa, and the arid Kalahari Basin (yellow) and the "Mediterranean" south coast (olive) of Southern Africa. The numbers shown correspond to the dates of all Iron Age artifacts associated with the Bantu expansion.
The Ezana Stone records King Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various neighboring peoples, including Meroë.
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Ethnographic map of Africa, from Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (1932).
The intricate 9th-century bronzes from Igbo-Ukwu, in Nigeria displayed a level of technical accomplishment that was notably more advanced than European bronze casting of the same period.
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Climate zones of Africa, showing the ecological break between the hot desert climate of North Africa and the Horn of Africa (red), the hot semi-arid climate of the Sahel and areas surrounding deserts (orange) and the tropical climate of Central and Western Africa (blue). Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia and Botswana.
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Stone chopping tool from Olduvai Gorge.
Major slave trading regions of Africa, 15th–19th centuries.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
Nok sculpture, terracotta, Louvre.
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
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Fictionalised portrait of Nzinga, queen of the Ndongo and Matamba kingdoms.
Topography of Africa
1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Sphinx of the Nubian Emperor Taharqa.
Today, the African Plate is moving over Earth's surface at a speed of 0.292° ± 0.007° per million years, relative to the "average" Earth (NNR-MORVEL56)
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
Stone city of Gondershe, Somalia.
The main biomes in Africa.
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Fasilides Castle, Ethiopia.
Africa Water Precipitation
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
The Tongoni Ruins south of Tanga in Tanzania
Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Great Zimbabwe: Tower in the Great Enclosure.
African countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2020
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Population density in Africa, 2006.
A map showing religious distribution in Africa
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Fertility rates and life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa.
A simplistic view of language families spoken in Africa
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Yoruba drummers (Niger-Congo).
The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
A San man (Khoisan).
Nok figure (5th century BC-5th century AD)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Maasai women and children (Nilo-Saharan).
A musician from South Africa
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Saho women (Afroasiatic).
Best results of African men's national football teams at the FIFA World Cup
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
A Boer European African family (Indo-European).
An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950–2011
Climate map of Nigeria
Lagos
Africa's wars and conflicts, 1980–96 {{legend|#cc4c02|Major Wars/Conflict (100,000 + Casualties)}}{{legend|#fe9929|Minor Wars/Conflict}}{{legend|#fed98e|Other Conflicts}}
Palm plantation in Delta State
Nairobi
Political map of Africa in 2021
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Johannesburg
Map of the African Economic Community.
CEN-SAD
COMESA
EAC
ECCAS
ECOWAS
IGAD
SADC
UMA
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
The Athlone Power Station in Cape Town, South Africa.
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Energy sources in sub-Saharan Africa. Fossil Fuels and hydroelectric power make up the largest share of sub-Saharan African electricity.
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Skyline of Libreville, Gabon.
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
Downtown Luanda, Angola.
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Phenakite from the Jos Plateau, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Agricultural fields in Rwanda's Eastern Province.
Innoson vehicles
The Naute Fruit Farm at the Naute Dam outside of Keetmanshoop, Namibia.
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
The University of Botswana's Earth Science building in Gaborone, Botswana.
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
The University of Antananarivo in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Lekki Beach in Lagos
The Komfo Anokye Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.
Substation in Abuja
Estimated prevalence in % of HIV among young adults (15–49) per country as of 2011.
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Ifá divination and its four digit binary code.
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
Two Bambara Chiwara c. undefined late 19th / early 20th centuries. Female (left) and male Vertical styles.
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
A traditional polyrhythmic kalimba.
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
A plate of fufu accompanied with peanut soup.
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
Ugali and cabbage.
The Abuja National Mosque
This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine.
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
The Akan Kente cloth patterns.
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
Kangas
A hospital in Abuja
The Stade Félix Houphouët-Boigny in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
The University of Lagos
The Namibia rugby team.
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
Geo-political map of Africa divided for ethnomusicological purposes, after Alan P. Merriam, 1959.
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Central Africa
Middle Africa (UN subregion)
Central African Federation (defunct)
Nigerian women in tech
Eastern Africa (UN subregion)
East African Community
Central African Federation (defunct)
Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
Southern Africa (UN subregion)
geographic, including above
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Western Africa (UN subregion)
Maghreb
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

- Sub-Saharan Africa

It covers an area of 923769 km2, and with a population of over 218 million, it is the most populous country in Africa, and the world’s seventh-most populous country.

- Nigeria

Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population.

- Africa

It produced life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa and smelted iron by about 550 BC and possibly a few centuries earlier.

- Nigeria

At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia.

- Africa

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.

- Sub-Saharan Africa
The totality of Africa seen by the Apollo 17 crew

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mali

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Landlocked country in West Africa.

Landlocked country in West Africa.

The extent of the Mali Empire's peak
The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890
Cotton being processed in Niono into 400 lb bales for export to other parts of Africa and to France, c. 1950
WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
Members of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People, directory of the ruling junta in Mali
Satellite image of Mali
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
Landscape in Hombori
Ex-Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré
Former President of Mali Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president of the Netherlands Mark Rutte
A market scene in Djenné
A proportional representation of Mali exports, 2019
Kalabougou potters
Cotton processing at CMDT
GDP per capita development of Mali
A Bozo girl in Bamako
The Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.
An entrance to the Djinguereber mosque
High school students in Kati
Village in the Sahel region
Konoguel Mosque tower
Mali Dogon Dance
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village
Malian tea

Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of over 1240000 sqkm.

The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria.

Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups.

Ghana

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Country in West Africa.

Country in West Africa.

16th-century Akan Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of Art
An 1850 map showing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa
18th-century Ashanti brass kuduo. Gold dust and nuggets were kept in kuduo, as were other items of personal value and significance. As receptacles for their owners' kra, or life force, kuduo were prominent features of ceremonies designed to honour and protect that individual.
The Portuguese established the Portuguese Gold Coast with the construction of Elmina Castle (Castelo da Mina) by Diogo de Azambuja in 1482, making it the oldest European building in Sub-Saharan Africa.
During Anglo-Ashanti Wars British troops ransacking a Fomena chief's palace en route to Kumasi in 1874
Kwame Nkrumah, first President of Ghana
Traditional chiefs in Ghana in 2015
Fiho kopé - south Ghana
Parliament House of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings and Jubilee House is the presidential palace.
First President of the Republic of Ghana Nkrumah and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th presidents of the 4th Republic of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.
Kofi Annan, Ghanaian diplomat and United Nations Secretary-General 1997–2006
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan inspects Honour Guards mounted by the Ghana Air Force at the Jubilee House the Presidential Palace of Ghana in Greater Accra on 1 March 2016.
Militarized police Unit of the Ghana Police Service
Ghana is among the sovereign states of West Africa used by drug cartels and drug traffickers (shown in orange).
Change in per capita GDP of Ghana, 1870–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars
A proportional representation of Ghana exports, 2019
Ghana petroleum and commodities; exports in percentage.
Jubilee oil field of the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) and National Petroleum Authority located off the coast of the Western Region in Ghana in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Surfers surfing and big wave surfing at Busua Beach in Western region
A villa in East Ridge
Ghana Export Treemap by Product (2017) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Ghana education system's implementation of information and communications technology at the University of Ghana
Population pyramid 2016
Ghana Card (Ghanaian electronic ID Card) – obverse with chip
Development of life expectancy, 1921 to 2019
Hogbetsotso festival in the Volta region
Adinkra symbols by Robert Sutherland Rattray
Kente cloth, the traditional or national cloth of Ghana, is worn by most southern Ghanaian ethnic groups including the Akan, the Ga, and the Ewe.
Ghana mass media, news and information provided by television.
Black Stars, the Ghana national football team.
Black Stars goal celebration.
Ghanaian winter sports Olympic team at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics
Modern high-rise buildings in Accra, the capital.
Administration block of Achimota School

With over 31 million people, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria.

These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.

Ghana is the leader in the adoption of digital financial services in Africa and set to increase financial inclusion to more than 85% until 2024.

African Union

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Map showing the traditional language families represented in Africa
Muammar Gaddafi embracing Tanzanian President Kikwete after assuming the chairmanship
Billboard in Niamey (Niger) announcing the 33rd AU Summit (2019)
African Union Representational Mission in Washington, D.C.
Emblem of the African Union
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (formerly GSPC) area of operations
South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011
Kenyan soldiers and fighters of the Ras Kamboni Brigades, a Somali government-allied militia, near Kismayo, Somalia, 2012

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa.

HIV in Africa 2011.svg)The AU has been active in addressing the AIDS pandemic in Africa. In 2001, the AU established AIDS Watch Africa to coordinate and mobilise a continent-wide response. Sub-Saharan Africa, especially southern and eastern Africa, is the most affected area in the world. Though this region is home to only 6.2% of the world's population, it is also home to half of the world's population infected with HIV. While the measurement of HIV prevalence rates has proved methodologically challenging, more than 20% of the sexually active population of many countries of southern Africa may be infected, with South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe all expected to have a decrease in life expectancy by an average of 6.5 years. The pandemic has had massive implications for the economy of the continent, reducing economic growth rates by 2–4% across Africa.

A number of AU member states led by Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Rwanda requested that the AU recognise the NTC as Libya's interim governing authority, and several other AU member states have recognised the NTC regardless of the Peace and Security Council's decision.

Angola

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Country in Central Africa, sometimes considered part of Southern Africa due to its location.

Country in Central Africa, sometimes considered part of Southern Africa due to its location.

King João I, Manikongo of the Kingdom of Kongo
Coat of arms granted to King Afonso I of Kongo by King Manuel I of Portugal
Queen Ana de Sousa of Ndongo meeting with the Portuguese, 1657
Depiction of Luanda from 1755
History of Angola; written in Luanda in 1680.
Portuguese Armed Forces marching in Luanda during the Portuguese Colonial Wars (1961–74).
Members of the National Liberation Front of Angola training in 1973.
Agostinho Neto, first President of Angola.
Maximum extent of UNITA and South African operations in Angola and Zambia during the Angolan Civil War.
Cuban tank in Luanda during the Cuban intervention in Angola, 1976
Luanda is experiencing widespread urban renewal and redevelopment in the 21st century, backed largely by profits from oil & diamond industries.
Topography of Angola.
Map of Angola with the provinces numbered
Provincial Government of Huambo.
Provincial Government of Namibe.
The National Assembly of Angola.
João Lourenço, President of Angola
Soldiers of the Angolan Armed Forces in full dress uniform.
Angolan National Police officers.
Foreign Minister of Angola Manuel Domingos Augusto.
Diplomatic missions of Angola.
A proportional representation of Angola exports, 2019
GDP per capita 1950 to 2018
The National Bank of Angola.
Luanda Financial City.
Tourism in Angola has grown with the country's economy and stability.
Corporate headquarters in Luanda
An offshore oil drilling platform off the coast of central Angola
Capanda Dam on the Cuanza
TAAG Angola Airlines is the country's state-owned national carrier.
Catumbela Bridge in Benguela.
Lobito hosts a major seaport.
Luanda's construction boom is financed largely by oil and diamonds.
Population Pyramid of Angola in 2020.
Portuguese colonial architecture in the historic center of Benguela.
Roman Catholic Luanda Cathedral.
Catholic church of Uaco Cungo.
Lucrécia Paím Maternity Hospital.
Agostinho Neto University.
A primary school in Province of Cuanza Sul
Mutu-ya Kevela Prep. School
Agostinho Neto National Memorial in Luanda.
Yombe sculpture.
National Museum of Anthropology.
The National Stadium in Benguela.
Angola map of Köppen climate classification.
Historical ethnic divisions of Angola

It is the second-largest Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country in both total area and population (behind Brazil in both cases), and is the seventh-largest country in Africa.

They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north in the first millennium BC, most of whom likely originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger.

It was ranked 39 out of 52 sub-Saharan African countries, scoring particularly badly in the areas of participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunity and human development.

A group of Yoruba people at a public event

Yoruba people

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A group of Yoruba people at a public event
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Degree of Presence of The Yoruba and derived' Ede 
groups in Nigeria, Benin & Togo at Subnational levels
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Palace of the King of Oyo circa 1900s - Colorized
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Anna Hinderer church and mission house at Ibadan, 1850s
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Yoruba door, wood carvings; used to record events c. 1910
Early 19th century Yoruba architecture showing their unique inner courtyard layout used as a safe space for storing livestock and a space where children could play
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Gbedu drummers
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Wooden Ere Ibeji figures representing twins. Yorubas have the highest twinning rate in the world.
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An older traditional Agbada clothing historically worn by Yoruba men. This exhibit was obtained in the town of Òkukù.
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African Languages Spoken in American Households
Commemoration of Black consciousness, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Amala is a Yoruba food.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=amala|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Akara is a Yoruba bean fritter.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=akara|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Ofada rice is a Yoruba dish.<ref name="Olusegun Obasanjo 1983">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Management_in_Agriculture_Rural_Developm/JdrSAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22ofada%20rice%22|title=Management in Agriculture & Rural Development: A Practicioner's View|author=Olusegun Obasanjo|date=1983|isbn=9789782399243}}</ref>
Ofada rice is traditionally in a leaf.
Moin Moin is a Yoruba steamed bean pudding.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Adim%C3%BA/w3r4Xx2059AC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22moin+moin%22|title=Adimú: Gbogbó Tén'unjé Lukumí|author=Miguel Willie Ramos|publisher=Eleda.Org Publications|date=July 2012|isbn=9781877845109}}</ref>
A collection of foods eaten by Yorubas in general
Simple Iro and Buba with Gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Fundamentals_of_Nigerian_Marketing/JfbTAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22iro+and+buba%22&dq=%22iro+and+buba%22&printsec=frontcover|title=Fundamentals of Nigerian Marketing|author=Esogwa C. Osuala|date=1988|publisher=Pacific Publishers|isbn=9789782347299}}</ref>
Agbádá àti Fìlà<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Yoruba_Dress/CzAqd4vGphoC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=agbada+and+fila&dq=agbada+and+fila&printsec=frontcover|title=Yoruba Dress: A Systematic Case Study of Five Generations of a Lagos Family|author=Betty Marguerite Wass|date=1975|publisher=Michigan State University. Department of Family Ecology|isbn=9789782347299|pages=143–183}}</ref>
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele. Blouse, wrapper and headgear<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>
Bùbá àti Kèmbè. Agbada top with short baggy pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Handbook_of_Nigerian_Culture/n1AuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=kembe|title=A Handbook of Nigerian Culture|author1=Frank Aig-Imoukhuede|author2=Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|date=1992|publisher=Department of Culture, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|isbn=9789783131613|page=134}}</ref>
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele made from Òfì<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Aso_Oke_Yoruba/bH5djwEACAAJ?hl=en|title=Aso Oke Yoruba: A Tapestry of Love & Color, a Journey of Personal Discovery|author=Tola Adenle|date=February 2, 2016|publisher=CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform|isbn=9781523495221}}</ref>
Agbádá àti Sóró, Agbada and long slim pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Lekki/o9EuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=They%20wear%20dresses%20like|title=Lekki|author=Bola researcher/writer Sebastian|date=1992|publisher=Public Information Department, Lagos State Ministry of Information, Culture, Youth & Sports|page=3}}</ref>
Ìró and Bùbá with gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>

The Yoruba people (Ìran Yorùbá, Ọmọ Odùduwà, Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire ) are a West African ethnic group that mainly inhabits parts of Nigeria, Benin and Togo.

The Yorubas constitute more than 47 million people in Africa, are a few hundred thousand outside the continent, and bear further representation among members of the African diaspora.

For a long time also, Ibadan, one of the major Yoruba cities and founded in the 1800s, was the largest city in the whole of Sub Saharan Africa.

Nok culture

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The Nok culture (or Nok civilization) is a population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928.

In the maritime history of Africa, there is the earlier Dufuna canoe, which was constructed approximately 8000 years ago in the northern region of Nigeria; as the second earliest form of water vessel known in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Nok terracotta depiction of a dugout canoe was created in the central region of Nigeria during the first millennium BCE.

Chad

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Landlocked country at the crossroads of North and Central Africa.

Landlocked country at the crossroads of North and Central Africa.

Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem–Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
A Chadian soldier fighting for Free France during World War II. The Free French Forces included 15,000 soldiers from Chad.
Despite internal political opposition, coup attempts, and a civil war, Idriss Déby continuously ruled Chad from 1990 until his death in 2021.
Chad is divided into three distinct zones, the Sudanian Savanna in the south, the Sahara Desert in the north, and the Sahelian belt in the center.
An African bush elephant
Toubou nomads in the Ennedi Mountains
Mboum girls dancing in Chad
Chadian woman voting during the 2016 presidential election
Embassy of Chad in Washington, D.C.
A proportional representation of Chad exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Chad, since 1950
Women in Mao, where water is provided by a water tower. Access to clean water is often a problem in Chad.
A Chadian tailor sells traditional dresses.
Criquets grillés ou fris

It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon to the south-west, Nigeria to the southwest (at Lake Chad), and Niger to the west.

Chad is a large landlocked country spanning north-central Africa.

At 33 percent, Chad has one of the lowest literacy rates of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

World Bank

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International financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.

International financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.

Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The Gold Room at the Mount Washington Hotel where the International Monetary Fund and World Bank were established
The World Bank Group headquarters building in Washington, D.C.

UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health, nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, and Africa".

Most developed countries' voting power was reduced, along with a few developing countries such as Nigeria.

For some countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth regressed and inflation worsened.