African-American heritage of presidents of the United States

African-American heritage of United States presidentsbirth to a mulattoblacks might be found in his family treeThomas Jefferson's African Heritage
The African-American heritage of United States presidents relates mostly to questions and claims made by amateur historians as to whether five presidents of the United States who were accepted as white also had significant recent African ancestry.wikipedia
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Early life and career of Thomas Jefferson

Ancestry of Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson
Vaughn and others claim Thomas Jefferson's mother Jane Randolph Jefferson was of mixed-race ancestry.
In an 18th-century Presidential campaign, someone speaking against Jefferson's candidacy and in favor of that of John Adams accused Jefferson of being "half Injun, half nigger, half Frenchman" and born to a "mulatto father" or slave and "a half-breed Indian squaw", this birth to a mulatto and an Indian allegedly "well-known in the neighbourhood where he was raised" but otherwise unproven.

William Estabrook Chancellor

These claims have been made by the historian William Estabrook Chancellor, amateur historian J. A. Rogers, ophthalmologist Leroy William Vaughn, and Auset BaKhufu. Warren G. Harding was said to have African ancestry; one claim was by his political opponent, a controversial and racist historian, William Estabrook Chancellor.

Warren G. Harding

Warren HardingHardingPresident Harding
Warren G. Harding was said to have African ancestry; one claim was by his political opponent, a controversial and racist historian, William Estabrook Chancellor.
During the campaign, opponents spread old rumors that Harding's great-great-grandfather was a West Indian black person and that other blacks might be found in his family tree.

Jefferson–Hemings controversy

Jefferson-Hemings controversy1998 DNA studyHemings family
DNA studies in 1998 showed a match between the Jefferson male line and a descendant of Eston Hemings, leading experts to conclude that Jefferson was likely the father of Hemings' children.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
There is no disagreement that President Barack Obama (2009–2017) had a Kenyan father and an American mother of mostly European ancestry (she and Obama are thought also to be descended from the African indentured servant known in colonial records as John Punch).

Kenya

KenyanRepublic of KenyaKEN
There is no disagreement that President Barack Obama (2009–2017) had a Kenyan father and an American mother of mostly European ancestry (she and Obama are thought also to be descended from the African indentured servant known in colonial records as John Punch).

John Punch (slave)

John Punch
There is no disagreement that President Barack Obama (2009–2017) had a Kenyan father and an American mother of mostly European ancestry (she and Obama are thought also to be descended from the African indentured servant known in colonial records as John Punch).

Colonial history of the United States

Colonial Americacolonialcolonial period
The academic consensus of historians is that no president other than Obama has had recent (from the colonial period in U.S. history or after) African ancestry; it rejects claims to the contrary.

Joel Augustus Rogers

J. A. RogersJ.A. RogersJoel A. Rogers
These claims have been made by the historian William Estabrook Chancellor, amateur historian J. A. Rogers, ophthalmologist Leroy William Vaughn, and Auset BaKhufu.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
These claims have been made by the historian William Estabrook Chancellor, amateur historian J. A. Rogers, ophthalmologist Leroy William Vaughn, and Auset BaKhufu.

Sally Hemings

affairsSally Hemings: An American ScandalHemings
Jefferson's mixed-race children from his relationship with Sally Hemings, were seven-eighths white.

Partus sequitur ventrem

partus sequitur ventrumpartusenslaved status from mother to child
This classification of ancestry and social class was separate from the legal status derived from partus sequitur ventrem, the law that made children born to slave mothers also slaves.

South

Ssouthboundaustral
But, it was not until after the end of slavery and regaining of power by conservative whites in the late 19th-century South that they passed laws to create racial segregation and Jim Crow.

Racial segregation

segregationsegregatedsegregationist
But, it was not until after the end of slavery and regaining of power by conservative whites in the late 19th-century South that they passed laws to create racial segregation and Jim Crow.

Jim Crow laws

Jim CrowJim Crow eraJim Crow law
But, it was not until after the end of slavery and regaining of power by conservative whites in the late 19th-century South that they passed laws to create racial segregation and Jim Crow.

Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era

disenfranchiseddisfranchiseddisenfranchised most blacks
From 1890 to 1908, southern states of the former Confederacy passed constitutional amendments and legislation making voter registration more difficult, essentially disfranchising most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting Rights Act1965 Voting Rights ActNational Voting Rights Act of 1965
Such disfranchisement essentially lasted until the civil rights movement gained Congressional passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to protect constitutional rights of citizens to vote.

One-drop rule

one drop ruleone dropOne-drop theory
Beginning with Tennessee in 1910, through Oklahoma in 1931, most southern states adopted the one-drop rule, and hardened racial lines so that a person of any African ancestry was to be recorded as and considered as black in the binary society.

Florida

FLState of FloridaFloridian
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.

Indiana

INState of IndianaInd.
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.

Kentucky

KYCommonwealth of KentuckyKentuckian
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.

Maryland

MDState of MarylandMaryland, USA
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.

Missouri

MOState of MissouriMissouri, USA
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.

Nebraska

NEState of NebraskaGeography of Nebraska
During the same period, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jure, but amended these fractions (one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second) to be equivalent to one-drop de facto.