African-American music

African American musicblack musicrace musicAfrican AmericanAfrican-AmericanmusicAfro-American musicblack musicalraceAfrican-American popular music
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.wikipedia
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Blues

blues musicthe bluespiano blues
The modern genres of blues and ragtime were developed during the late 19th century by fusing West African vocalizations - which employed the natural harmonic series, and blue notes.
Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition.

Hip hop music

Hip hophip-hoprap
In the 1970s and 1980s, Black artists developed hip-hop, and in the 1980s introduced the disco-infused dance style known as house music.
This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping", a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners.

Field holler

field hollersfield callhollers
These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, rapping, scatting, call and response, vocality (or special vocal effect: guttural effects, interpolated vocality, falsetto, melisma, vocal rhythmization), improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms (syncopation, concrescence, tension, improvisation, percussion, swung note), texture (antiphony, homophony, polyphony, heterophony) and harmony (vernacular progressions; complex, multi-part harmony, as in spirituals, Doo Wop, and barbershop music).
The Afro-American music form ultimately influenced strands of African American music, such as the blues, rhythm and blues, and spirituals.

Banjo

tenor banjo5-string banjofive-string banjo
The banjo, of African origin, became a popular instrument, and its African-derived rhythms were incorporated into popular songs by Stephen Foster and other songwriters.
Historically, the banjo occupied a central place in African-American traditional music and the folk culture of rural whites before entering the mainstream via the minstrel shows of the 19th century.

Rapping

rapperraprappers
These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, rapping, scatting, call and response, vocality (or special vocal effect: guttural effects, interpolated vocality, falsetto, melisma, vocal rhythmization), improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms (syncopation, concrescence, tension, improvisation, percussion, swung note), texture (antiphony, homophony, polyphony, heterophony) and harmony (vernacular progressions; complex, multi-part harmony, as in spirituals, Doo Wop, and barbershop music).
Van Peebles also said that he was influenced by older forms of African-American music: "... people like Blind Lemon Jefferson and the field hollers. I was also influenced by spoken word song styles from Germany that I encountered when I lived in France."

Funk

funk musicfunkysynth-funk
In the mid-1960s, Black musicians developed funk and they were many of the leading figures in late 1960s and 1970s genre of jazz-rock fusion.
The distinctive characteristics of African-American musical expression are rooted in sub-Saharan African music traditions, and find their earliest expression in spirituals, work chants/songs, praise shouts, gospel, blues, and "body rhythms" (hambone, patting juba, and ring shout clapping and stomping patterns).

Blackface

black faceblacked upblackface minstrelsy
The influence of African Americans on mainstream American music began in the 19th century, with the advent of blackface minstrelsy.
It was through blackface performers, white and black, that the richness and exuberance of African-American music, humor, and dance first reached mainstream, white audiences in the U.S. and abroad.

Race record

race recordsracerace music
Billboard started making a separate list of hit records for African-American music in October 1942 with the "Harlem Hit Parade", which was changed in 1945 to "Race Records", and then in 1949 to "Rhythm and Blues Records".
They primarily contained race music, comprising various African-American musical genres, including blues, jazz, and gospel music, and also comedy.

Elvis Presley

ElvisPresleyGladys Presley
However, it was with white musicians such as Bill Haley and Elvis Presley, playing a guitar-based fusion of black rock and roll with country music called rockabilly, that rock and roll music became commercially successful.
His music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience.

Melisma

melismaticsyllabicmelismas
These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, rapping, scatting, call and response, vocality (or special vocal effect: guttural effects, interpolated vocality, falsetto, melisma, vocal rhythmization), improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms (syncopation, concrescence, tension, improvisation, percussion, swung note), texture (antiphony, homophony, polyphony, heterophony) and harmony (vernacular progressions; complex, multi-part harmony, as in spirituals, Doo Wop, and barbershop music).
Today, melisma is commonly used in Middle Eastern, African, Balkan, and African American music, Fado (Portuguese), Flamenco (Spanish), and some Asian and Celtic folk music.

Rock and roll

rockrock 'n' rollrock & roll
African-American musicians in the 1940s and 1950s were developing rhythm and blues into a genre called rock and roll, which featured a strong backbeat and whose prominent exponents included Louis Jordan and Wynonie Harris.
The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called "race music", and country music of the 1940s and 1950s.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.
African-American music is one of the most pervasive African-American cultural influences in the United States today and is among the most dominant in mainstream popular music.

Gil Scott-Heron

Gil Scott HeronGil-Scott HeronAngel Dust
Spoken-word artists such as The Last Poets, Gil Scott-Heron and Melvin Van Peebles are also cited as the major innovators in early hip-hop.
His music, most notably on the albums Pieces of a Man and Winter in America in the early 1970s, influenced and foreshadowed later African-American music genres such as hip hop and neo soul.

Vocality

These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, rapping, scatting, call and response, vocality (or special vocal effect: guttural effects, interpolated vocality, falsetto, melisma, vocal rhythmization), improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms (syncopation, concrescence, tension, improvisation, percussion, swung note), texture (antiphony, homophony, polyphony, heterophony) and harmony (vernacular progressions; complex, multi-part harmony, as in spirituals, Doo Wop, and barbershop music).
All of the listed devices are attributes of African vocality and are used to emotionalize vocal and instrumental performances in African American vernacular music.

Techno

techno musicbleep technoYorkshire Bleeps and Bass
Techno, Dance, Miami bass, post-disco, Chicago house, Los Angeles hardcore and Washington, D.C. Go-go developed during this period, with only Miami bass achieving mainstream success.
The style resulted from the melding of African American styles such as house, funk, and electro with synthpop by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder and Yellow Magic Orchestra.

New jack swing

swingbeatNew Jacknew-jack
Pop and dance-soul of this era inspired new jack swing by the end of the decade.
Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines new jack swing as "pop music usually performed by black musicians that combines elements of jazz, funk, rap, and rhythm and blues".

Rhythm and blues

R&Brhythm & bluesRnB
African-American musicians developed related styles such as Rhythm and Blues in the 1940s.
It replaced the term "race music", which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world.

Lauryn Hill

Ms. Lauryn HillLauren HillMs Lauryn Hill
The neo soul movement of the 1990s looked back on more classical soul influences and was popularized in the late 1990s/early 2000s by such artists as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Maxwell, Lauryn Hill, India.Arie, Alicia Keys, Jill Scott, Angie Stone, Bilal and Musiq Soulchild.
They renamed themselves the Fugees and released the albums Blunted on Reality (1994), and the Grammy Award–winning The Score (1996), which sold six million copies in the U.S. Hill rose to prominence with her African-American and Caribbean music influences, her rapping and singing, and her rendition of the hit "Killing Me Softly".

Jazz

jazz musicContemporary jazzModern Jazz
Following the Civil War, Black Americans, through employment as musicians playing European music in military bands, developed a new style of music called ragtime which gradually evolved into jazz.
Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music.

Will Marion Cook

William Marion CookWilliam Mercer Cook
Concerts featured music written by black composers, notably Harry T. Burleigh and Will Marion Cook.

Thriller (album)

ThrillerThe Lady in My LifeBaby Be Mine
In the 1980s, Michael Jackson had record-breaking success with his albums Off the Wall, Bad, and Thriller – the latter remaining the best-selling album of all time – transforming popular music and uniting races, ages and genders, and would eventually lead to successful crossover black solo artists, including Prince, Lionel Richie, Luther Vandross, Tina Turner, Whitney Houston, and Janet Jackson.
It was one of the first videos by a black artist to be aired regularly by the channel, as the network's executives felt black music was not "rock" enough.

Hip hop

hip-hophip hop culturehiphop
In the South Bronx, the half-speaking, half-singing rhythmic street talk of 'rapping' grew into a cultural force known as Hip hop.
This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping," a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners.

Spiritual (music)

spiritualsspiritualNegro spiritual
These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, rapping, scatting, call and response, vocality (or special vocal effect: guttural effects, interpolated vocality, falsetto, melisma, vocal rhythmization), improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms (syncopation, concrescence, tension, improvisation, percussion, swung note), texture (antiphony, homophony, polyphony, heterophony) and harmony (vernacular progressions; complex, multi-part harmony, as in spirituals, Doo Wop, and barbershop music).
Field holler music, also known as Levee Camp Holler music, was an early form of African American music, described in the 19th century.

Beach music

Carolina Beach MusicBeachBeach pop
At the time, much of these recordings were characterized as "race music", a term later replaced by "R&B."