African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-AmericanblackAfrican-AmericansBlack or African AmericanblacksBlack AmericanAfro-AmericanAfricanBlack Americans
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.wikipedia
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Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslave
The phrase generally refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865.

African-American history

African American historyblack historyhistory
African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Latin America, and in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
African-American history is the part of American history that looks at the history of African Americans or Black Americans.

African immigration to the United States

Sub-Saharan AfricanAfricanAfrican immigrants
According to U.S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American.
As such, African immigrants are distinct from African Americans, many of whose ancestors were involuntarily brought from West Africa and Central Africa to British North America by means of the historic Atlantic slave trade.

African-American culture

African American cultureblack cultureculture
These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom.
African-American culture, also known as Black American culture, refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture.

Military history of African Americans

African AmericanAfrican Americansblack soldiers
These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom.
In every war fought by or within the United States, African Americans participated, including the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the Civil War, the Spanish–American War, the World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq as well as other minor conflicts.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.
A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency.

Reconstruction era

ReconstructionpostbellumCongressional Reconstruction
These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom.
Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included segregation and the preservation of the traditional cultural standards of the South; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans.

West Africa

West AfricanWestWestern Africa
On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry.
Due to the large numbers of West Africans enslaved in the Atlantic slave trade, most African Americans, Afro Latin Americans and Black Caribbeans are likely to have mixed ancestry from different regions of western Africa.

White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacism
Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens.
In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom.

English Americans

EnglishEnglish AmericanAnglo-American
They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers.
Since 1776, English-Americans have been less likely to proclaim their heritage, unlike African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans or other ethnic groups.

Prince Whipple

Activists in the Patriot cause included James Armistead, Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell.
Prince Whipple (1750–1796) was an African American slave and later freedman who accompanied his former owner, General William Whipple of the New Hampshire militia, during the American Revolutionary War.

James Armistead Lafayette

James Armistead
Activists in the Patriot cause included James Armistead, Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell.
James Armistead Lafayette (born 1748 or 1760 – died 1830 or 1832) was an enslaved African American who served the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War under the Marquis de Lafayette.

Mary McLeod Bethune

Mary McCleod BethuneDr. Mary McLeod BethuneMary Jane McLeod Bethune
To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses.
Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (born Mary Jane McLeod; July 10, 1875 – May 18, 1955 ) was an American educator, stateswoman, philanthropist, humanitarian, and civil rights activist best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida and co-founding UNCF on April 25, 1944 with William Trent and Frederick D. Patterson.

Great Migration (African American)

Great MigrationThe Great Migrationmigrated
The desperate conditions of African Americans in the South sparked the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century which led to a growing African-American community in Northern and Western United States.
The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration or the Black Migration, was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.

Historically black colleges and universities

historically black collegehistorically blackHBCU
To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses.
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.

Black church

African-American churchBlack Protestantblack churches
To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses.
The term black church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly African American congregations in the United States.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony (most likely located in the Winyah Bay area of present-day South Carolina), founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.
As of the 2017 census estimate, the racial make up of the state is 68.5% White (63.8% non-Hispanic white), 27.3% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 1.9% from two or more races.

Hispanic Americans

HispanicHispanic or LatinoLatino
(after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans).

Spanish Florida

FloridaLa FloridaSecond Spanish Period
In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos.
They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies.

Nadir of American race relations

nadir of race relations1896a regression in race relations
In the last decade of the 19th century, racially discriminatory laws and racial violence aimed at African Americans began to mushroom in the United States, a period often referred to as the "nadir of American race relations".
During this period, African Americans lost many civil rights gained during Reconstruction.

Haiti

Republic of HaitiHaïtiHaitian
The settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come.
Starting in September 1824, more than 6,000 African Americans migrated to Haiti, with transportation paid by the ACS.

Red Summer

Red Summer of 1919American Red SummerAmerican Red Summer of 1919
The Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919.
In most instances, whites attacked African Americans.

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)N.A.A.C.P.
Institutions included black oriented organizations (eg., Urban League, NAACP), churches, businesses, and newspapers, as well as successes in the development in African American intellectual culture, music, and popular culture (eg., Harlem Renaissance, Chicago Black Renaissance).
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.

Emmett Till

J.W. MilamRoy BryantEmmett Louis Till
A 1955 lynching that sparked public outrage about injustice was that of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old boy from Chicago.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store.

Anthony Overton

To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses.
Anthony Overton (March 21, 1865 – July 2, 1946), a banker and manufacturer, was the first African American to lead a major business conglomerate.