Age and female fertility

biological clockincreased female agebiological clocksfertile yearspeaking in the mid-20s, female fertility
Female fertility is affected by age.wikipedia
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Fertility

fertilemale fertilityfemale fertility
Female fertility is affected by age.
Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education, female labor participation, urban residence, cost of housing, intelligence, increased female age and (to a lesser degree) increased male age.

Ageing

agingageoctogenarian
Female fertility is affected by age.

Fertility factor (demography)

fertility factorfertility factorsfertility
Age is thus a major fertility factor for women.
Regarding age and female fertility, fertility starts at onset of menses, typically around age 12-13 Most women become subfertile during the early 30s, and during the early 40s most women become sterile.

Ovarian reserve

In terms of ovarian reserve, a typical woman has 12% of her reserve at age 30 and has only 3% at age 40. Mapping of a woman's ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers can give an individual prognosis about future chances of pregnancy, facilitating an informed choice of when to have children.
With advanced maternal age the number of egg cell that can be successfully recruited for a possible pregnancy declines, constituting a major factor in the inverse correlation between age and female fertility.

Menarche

first periodfirst menstrual periodfirst menstruation
Menarche, the first menstrual period, usually occurs around 12–13, although it may happen earlier or later, depending on each girl. The average age of a young woman's first period (menarche) is 12 to 13 (12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK ) but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.

Puberty

pubescentpubescencesexual development
After puberty, female fertility increases and then decreases, with advanced maternal age causing an increased risk of female infertility.

Advanced maternal age

maternal agean older motherDelayed parenthood
After puberty, female fertility increases and then decreases, with advanced maternal age causing an increased risk of female infertility.

Female infertility

infertilitybarrenbarren woman
After puberty, female fertility increases and then decreases, with advanced maternal age causing an increased risk of female infertility.

Menopause

postmenopausalmenopausalpremenopausal
Menopause, or the cessation of menstrual periods, generally occurs in the 40s and 50s and marks the cessation of fertility, although age-related infertility can occur before then.

Menstrual cycle

menstrual periodmenstrualmenstruating
Menopause, or the cessation of menstrual periods, generally occurs in the 40s and 50s and marks the cessation of fertility, although age-related infertility can occur before then.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The average age of a young woman's first period (menarche) is 12 to 13 (12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK ) but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The average age of a young woman's first period (menarche) is 12 to 13 (12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK ) but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
The average age of a young woman's first period (menarche) is 12 to 13 (12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK ) but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.

Anovulation

anovulatoryanovulatory cyclesdo not ovulate
The average age of a young woman's first period (menarche) is 12 to 13 (12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK ) but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

National Institute for Health and Clinical ExcellenceNICENational Institute for Clinical Excellence
According to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) over 80 out of every 100 women aged under 40 who have regular unprotected sexual intercourse will get pregnant within 1 year of trying.

Inserm

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche MédicaleFrench Institute of Health and Medical ResearchFrench National Institute of Health and Medical Research

David Dunson

David Dunson, a biostatistician at the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, said that: "Although we noted a decline in female fertility in the late 20s, what we found was a decrease in the probability of becoming pregnant per menstrual cycle, not in the probability of eventually achieving a pregnancy."

Artificial insemination

intrauterine inseminationartificially inseminatedIUI
This French study looked at 2,193 women who were using artificial insemination because their husbands were azoospermic.

Azoospermia

azoospermicaspermatogenesisobstructive azoospermia
This French study looked at 2,193 women who were using artificial insemination because their husbands were azoospermic.

Natural fertility

!Kung San
The average age at last birth in natural fertility populations that have been studied is around 40.

Hutterites

HutteriteHutterianHabaners
In 1957, a study was done on a large population (American Hutterites) that never used birth control.

Family planning

family-planningeducation and accessfamily planning clinic
The inverse correlation between age and female fertility in later reproductive life is argued to motivate family planning well before having reached 35 years of age.

Ovarian follicle

follicleovarian folliclesfollicles
Mapping of a woman's ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers can give an individual prognosis about future chances of pregnancy, facilitating an informed choice of when to have children.

Anti-Müllerian hormone

AMHAnti-Mullerian hormoneMüllerian inhibiting factor
Notably, a higher level of anti-Müllerian hormone when tested in women in the general population has been found to have a positive correlation with natural fertility in women aged 30–44 aiming to conceive spontaneously, even after adjusting for age.