Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophyenlightenedEuropean Enlightenmentage of reasonFrench EnlightenmentEnlightenment eraEnlightenment periodEnlightenment philosophy
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason) was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, which is considered as the "Century of Philosophy".wikipedia
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Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
International historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution.
The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionaryrevolutionary France
French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715 (the year that Louis XIV died) and 1789 (the beginning of the French Revolution).
Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.
Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists.

Neoclassicism

neoclassicalClassical RevivalNeoclassic
A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism.

Salon (gathering)

salonsalonsliterary salon
Les philosophes of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses and in printed books and pamphlets.
Each of these methodologies focuses on different aspects of the salon, and thus have varying analyses of its importance in terms of French history and the Enlightenment as a whole

John Locke

LockeLockeanLocke, John
Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

Progress

social progressscientific progressprogressive
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
It was present in the Enlightenment's philosophies of history.

Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Voltaire.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJ.-J. RousseauJean Jacques Rousseau
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Voltaire.
Born in Geneva, his political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political and educational thought.

Enlightened absolutism

enlightened despotenlightened despotismenlightened absolutist
Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism.
Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or benevolent despotism) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power.

Benjamin Franklin

FranklinBen FranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia.
Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.

Cesare Beccaria

BeccariaMarquis Cesare BeccariaBeccaria, C
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Voltaire.
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
During the 18th century, the ideas of Locke and Bayle, in particular the separation of Church and State, became more common, promoted by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment.

Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementromanticist
After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism.
It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence (1776).
Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed.

Baruch Spinoza

SpinozaSpinozistSpinozism
Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza. These laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes, Locke and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, and second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority.
By laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.

Sapere aude

Aude SapereSapére Aude
The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude, "Dare to know".
Originally used in the First Book of Letters (20 BCE), by the Roman poet Horace, the phrase Sapere aude became associated with the Age of Enlightenment, during the 17th and 18th centuries, after Immanuel Kant used it in the essay, “Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?” (1784).

Coffeehouse

cafécafecoffee shop
Les philosophes of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses and in printed books and pamphlets.
This coffeehouse still exists today and was a popular meeting place of the French Enlightenment; Voltaire, Rousseau, and Denis Diderot frequented it, and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie, the first modern encyclopedia.

Counter-Enlightenment

anti-Enlightenmentanti-''philosopheCounter-Enlightenment’s
Both lines of thought were eventually opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith.
The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment.

Christian Wolff (philosopher)

Christian WolffWolffWolffianism
These laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes, Locke and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, and second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority.
His main achievement was a complete oeuvre on almost every scholarly subject of his time, displayed and unfolded according to his demonstrative-deductive, mathematical method, which perhaps represents the peak of Enlightenment rationality in Germany.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787.
His ideas on philosophy and morality were strongly shaped by Witherspoon, who converted Madison to the philosophy, values, and modes of thinking of the Age of Enlightenment.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalisticrationalists
René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking.
In politics, rationalism, since the Enlightenment, historically emphasized a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism, secularism, and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism was later softened by the adoption of pluralistic methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology.

Separation of powers

checks and balancesbranches of governmentdivision of powers
The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution.
The term "tripartite system" is commonly ascribed to French Enlightenment political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, although he did not use such a term.

Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle

FontenelleBernard de FontenelleB. le Bouvier de Fontenelle
In reference to this growth, Bernard de Fontenelle coined the term "the Age of Academies" to describe the 18th century.
Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (11 February 1657 – 9 January 1757), also called Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle, was a French author and an influential member of three of the academies of the Institut de France, noted especially for his accessible treatment of scientific topics during the unfolding of the Age of Enlightenment.

Modernity

modernmodern societymodern life
Hume and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed a "science of man", which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett, Adam Ferguson, John Millar and William Robertson, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behaved in ancient and primitive cultures with a strong awareness of the determining forces of modernity.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance—in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".