Age of consent

underageage of sexual consentunderage sexages of consentunder-agedage of legal consentage-of-consentjailbaitlegal age of consentsexual consent
The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.wikipedia
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Marriageable age

age of marriagelegal ageminimum age for marriage
It has sometimes been used with other meanings, such as the age at which a person becomes competent to consent to marriage, but the meaning given above is the one now generally understood.
The marriage age should not be confused with the age of maturity or the age of consent, though in many places they may be the same.

Age of majority

majoritylegal majorityadult
It should not be confused with other laws regarding age minimums including, but not limited to, the age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, voting age, drinking age, and driving age.
Age of majority should not be confused with the age of maturity, age of sexual consent, marriageable age, school-leaving age, drinking age, driving age, voting age, smoking age, gambling age, etc., which each may be independent of and set at a different age from the age of majority.

Statutory rape

corruption of a minorcorruption of minorssex
Consequently, an adult who engages in sexual activity with a person younger than the age of consent cannot claim that the sexual activity was consensual, and such sexual activity may be considered child sexual abuse or statutory rape.
In common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is nonforcible sexual activity in which one of the individuals is below the age of consent (the age required to legally consent to the behavior).

Consent

consensualaffirmative consentnon-consensual
Consequently, an adult who engages in sexual activity with a person younger than the age of consent cannot claim that the sexual activity was consensual, and such sexual activity may be considered child sexual abuse or statutory rape. The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.
For example, a person with a mental disorder, a low mental age, or under the legal age of sexual consent may willingly engage in a sexual act that still fails to meet the legal threshold for consent as defined by applicable law.

Human sexual activity

sexual activitysexual behaviorsex
The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.
Two examples that are criminal offences in most jurisdictions are sexual assault and sexual activity with a person below the local age of consent.

Ages of consent in Africa

Africaage of consentEswatini
* Ages of consent in Africa
The age of consent in Africa for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across the continent.

Ages of consent in the United States

age of consent18 U.S.C. §2423(b)age of consent in Alabama
In the United States, age of consent laws regarding sexual activity are made at the state level.

Ages of consent in South America

age of consent in Colombiaage of consent in Paraguaycriminalizes every kind of prostitution
– 16]]The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across South America.

Ages of consent in Asia

age of consentAge of Consent in JapanAsia
* Ages of consent in Asia
The legal age of consent for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across Asia, from age 12 to 21 years of age.

Ages of consent in Europe

age of consentunderageAge of consent in Europe
* Ages of consent in Europe These include Canada (in 2008—from 14 to 16); and in Europe, Iceland (in 2007—from 14 to 15), Lithuania (in 2010—from 14 to 16), Croatia (in 2013—from 14 to 15), and Spain (in 2015—from 13 to 16).
The ages of consent vary by jurisdiction across Europe.

Ages of consent in Oceania

age of consentlegal age of 16Oceania
* Ages of consent in Oceania
The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Australia, New Zealand and other parts of Oceania, ranging from age 15 to age 18.

Child sexual abuse

child molestationchild molestermolested
Consequently, an adult who engages in sexual activity with a person younger than the age of consent cannot claim that the sexual activity was consensual, and such sexual activity may be considered child sexual abuse or statutory rape.
In law enforcement, the term pedophile is sometimes used to describe those accused or convicted of child sexual abuse under sociolegal definitions of child (including both prepubescent children and adolescents younger than the local age of consent); however, not all child sexual offenders are pedophiles and not all pedophiles engage in sexual abuse of children.

Child prostitution

prostitution of childrenchild sex traffickingprostitution
Early feminists of the Social Purity movement, such as Josephine Butler and others, instrumental in securing the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, began to turn towards the problem of child prostitution by the end of the 1870s.
The term normally refers to prostitution of a minor, or person under the legal age of consent.

W. T. Stead

William Thomas SteadWilliam T. SteadW.T. Stead
The investigative journalist William Thomas Stead of the Pall Mall Gazette was pivotal in exposing the problem of child prostitution in the London underworld through a publicity stunt.
These were written in support of a bill, later dubbed the "Stead Act", that raised the age of consent from 13 to 16.

Position of trust

breach of trustabuse of trustpositions of trust
The laws may also vary by the type of sexual act, the gender of the participants or other considerations, such as involving a position of trust; some jurisdictions may also make allowances for minors engaged in sexual acts with each other, rather than a single age.
This is primarily used for the protection of young people who are above the age of consent but under the age of 18 and for the protection of people with mental disabilities.

Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885

Criminal Law Amendment ActCriminal Law Amendment Act of 18851885 Criminal Law Amendment Act
The government was forced to propose the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, which raised the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen and clamped down on prostitution.
The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (48 & 49 Vict. c.69), or "An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes", was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the latest in a 25-year series of legislation in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland beginning with the Offences against the Person Act 1861 that raised the age of consent and delineated the penalties for sexual offences against women and minors.

Eliza Armstrong case

Eliza Armstrongpurchased a 13-year-old girl
In 1885 he "purchased" one victim, Eliza Armstrong, the thirteen-year-old daughter of a chimney sweep, for five pounds and took her to a brothel where she was drugged.
By the end of the 1870s, this had become particularly focused on fears that British women were being lured—or abducted—to brothels in the Continent, especially since this was happening to girls barely past the age of consent.

Forced prostitution

commercial sexual exploitationforced into prostitutionenforced prostitution
In the 21st century, concerns about child sex tourism and commercial sexual exploitation of children gained international prominence, and have resulted in legislative changes in several jurisdictions, as well as in the adoption of several international instruments.
In most countries child prostitution is illegal irrespective of the child reaching a lower statutory age of consent.

The Pall Mall Gazette

Pall Mall GazettePall Mall BudgetPall Mall
The investigative journalist William Thomas Stead of the Pall Mall Gazette was pivotal in exposing the problem of child prostitution in the London underworld through a publicity stunt.
William Thomas Stead's editorship from 1883 to 1889 saw the paper cover such subjects as child prostitution; their campaign helped get the government to increase the age of consent from 13 to 16 in 1885.

Ages of consent in North America

estupro18 U.S.C. § 2423(b)18 U.S.C. §2423(b)
These include Canada (in 2008—from 14 to 16); and in Europe, Iceland (in 2007—from 14 to 15), Lithuania (in 2010—from 14 to 16), Croatia (in 2013—from 14 to 15), and Spain (in 2015—from 13 to 16).
The age of consent in Canada is 16.

The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon

Maiden Tribute
He then published a series of four exposés entitled The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon, which shocked its readers with tales of child prostitution and the abduction, procurement, and sale of young English virgins to Continental "pleasure palaces".
With sensational crossheads, such as "The Violation of Virgins" and "Strapping Girls Down", the Maiden Tribute threw respectable Victorians into a state of moral panic, and achieved, as a consequence, the implementation of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, which raised the age of consent for girls from 13 to 16, and also re-criminalised homosexual acts.

Child sex tourism

child sex touristschildrenexploitation
In the 21st century, concerns about child sex tourism and commercial sexual exploitation of children gained international prominence, and have resulted in legislative changes in several jurisdictions, as well as in the adoption of several international instruments.
Child sex tourism has also been complicated by varying ages of consent laws where, for example, the age of consent is 13 in Japan while it is 21 in Bahrain (see ages of consent in Asia).

Social purity movement

social purity19th-century purity organizationspurity movement
Early feminists of the Social Purity movement, such as Josephine Butler and others, instrumental in securing the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, began to turn towards the problem of child prostitution by the end of the 1870s.
In the late 19th century, "social" was a euphemism for "sexual"; the movement first formed in opposition to the legalization and regulation of prostitution, and quickly spread to other sex-related issues such as raising the age of consent, sexually segregating prisons, opposing contraception, preventing "white slavery", and censoring pornography.

Competence (law)

competentincompetent to stand trialincompetent
The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.

Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse

Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual AbuseCouLanzarote ConventionCouCouncil of Europe Convention
The Council of Europe [[Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse]] (Lanzarote, 25 October 2007), and the European Union's Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography were adopted.
States that ratify the Convention agree to criminalise sexual activity with children below the legal age of consent, regardless of the context in which such behaviour occurs; it also mandates the criminalisation of child prostitution and pornography.