agingageoctogenarianseptuagenariantwentysomethingagedaging processsexagenariansuccessful agingageing process
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.wikipedia
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DNA methylation

The causes of ageing are uncertain; current theories are assigned to the damage concept, whereby the accumulation of damage (such as DNA oxidation) may cause biological systems to fail, or to the programmed ageing concept, whereby internal processes (such as DNA methylation) may cause ageing.
In mammals DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of transposable elements, aging, and carcinogenesis.


In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species (population ageing).

Aging-associated diseases

age-related diseaseage-associated diseaseaging-associated disease
Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.
Age-associated diseases are to be distinguished from the aging process itself because all adult animals age, save for a few rare exceptions, but not all adult animals experience all age-associated diseases.


senilesenilitysenile dementia
Dementia becomes more common with age.
A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.

Memory and aging

Aging and memorymemoryage and mental acuity
Furthermore, many types of memory decline with ageing, but not semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady until late adulthood (see Ageing brain).
Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging" (also spelled "ageing" in British English), is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with types of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer disease
The spectrum ranges from mild cognitive impairment to the neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.
The first symptoms are often mistakenly attributed to ageing or stress.


skin agingaccelerated aging of the skinDermatoheliosis
The deterioration of biological functions and ability to manage metabolic stress is one of the major consequences of the aging process.


presbyopicnear pointFlexivue Microlens
Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.

Age and female fertility

biological clockincreased female agebiological clocks
Female fertility is affected by age.

Hearing loss

deafdeafnesshearing impairment
Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins.


wrinklescrow's feetwrinkling
Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation, habitual sleeping positions, loss of body mass, sun damage, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water.

Human hair color

hair colorBrownhair colour
Particular hair colors are often associated with ethnic groups, while gray or white hair is associated with age.

Frailty syndrome

frailtymedically frailFrail elderly
Frailty is a condition associated with ageing, and it has been recognized for centuries.


cataractscataract surgerycongenital cataracts
Cataracts become more common with age.


From in vitro studies, sirtuins are implicated in influencing cellular processes like aging, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation and stress resistance, as well as energy efficiency and alertness during low-calorie situations.


protein homeostasisprotein quality control network
Cellular proteostasis is key to ensuring successful development, healthy aging, resistance to environmental stresses, and to minimize homeostasis perturbations by pathogens such as viruses.

Reproductive-cell cycle theory

Rather than seeing aging as a loss of functionality as we get older, this theory defines aging as any change in an organism over time, as evidenced by the fact that if all chemical reactions in the body were stopped, no change, and thus no aging, would occur.

DNA damage theory of aging

DNA damagecumulative age-related cellular alterationsdamage DNA
The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages.

Population ageing

ageing populationaging populationpopulation aging
In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species (population ageing).

Human body

bodyhuman anatomyhuman physiology
In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes.
Development and growth continue throughout life, through childhood, adolescence, and through adulthood to senility, and are referred to as the process of ageing.

Free-radical theory of aging

free radical theory of agingfree-radical theoryfree radical theory
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.

Mitochondrial theory of ageing

mitochondrial free radical theory of agingMitochondrial theory of aging
Mitochondrial free radical theory of aging, MFRTA, proposes that free radicals produced by mitochondrial activity damage cellular components, leading to aging.

Caenorhabditis elegans

C. eleganswormsC.elegans
A model organism for studying of ageing is the nematode C. elegans.
C. elegans has been a model organism for research into ageing; for example, the inhibition of an insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway has been shown to increase adult lifespan threefold; while glucose feeding promotes oxidative stress and reduce adult lifespan by a half.

Michael Ristow

Ristow, Michael
Michael Ristow (b April 24, 1967) is a German medical researcher who has published influential articles on biochemical aspects of mitochondrial metabolism and particularly the possibly health-promoting role of reactive oxygen species in diseases like type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer, as well as general aging due to a process called mitohormesis.