Agent Orange

defoliantAgent Orange § U.S. veterans class action lawsuit against manufacturersdefoliantsHerbicide ORANGEherbicides and defoliantsin the Vietnam Warthe herbicideVietnam
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.wikipedia
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Operation Ranch Hand

defoliatingdefoliationdefoliation mission
It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971.
Largely inspired by the British use of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (Agent Orange) during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s, it was part of the overall herbicidal warfare program during the war called "Operation Trail Dust".

Defoliant

defoliationdefoliantsdefoliate
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.
Defoliants have also been used in warfare as a means to deprive an enemy of food crops and/or hiding cover, most notably by the United States in the Vietnam War.

Arthur Galston

In 1943, the U.S. Department of the Army contracted the botanist and bioethicist Arthur Galston, who discovered the defoliants later used in Agent Orange, and his employer University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign to study the effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on cereal grains (including rice) and broadleaf crops.
The British and U.S. military later developed TIBA into Agent Orange which was employed extensively in Malaya and Vietnam.

Vietnam

🇻🇳Viet NamSocialist Republic of Vietnam
Up to four million people in Vietnam were exposed to the defoliant.
The main environmental concern that persists in Vietnam until present is the chemical herbicide legacy of Agent Orange that causing birth defects and many health problems towards Vietnamese residents especially in the southern and central areas that was affected most by the chemicals with nearly 4.8 million Vietnamese have been exposed.

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5-T2,4,5‐T245-T
It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the British in the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid).

Herbicidal warfare

anticrop agentused in warfare and conflict
It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971.
Documents showed that the British "Trioxone" used in Malaya was virtually identical in composition to the Agent Orange later used by the U.S. in Vietnam.

Fairchild C-123 Provider

C-123C-123 ProviderFairchild C-123K Provider
Agent Orange was usually sprayed from helicopters or from low-flying C-123 Provider aircraft, fitted with sprayers and "MC-1 Hourglass" pump systems and 1000 U.S.gal chemical tanks.
During the War in Vietnam, the C-123 was used to deliver supplies, to evacuate the wounded, and also used to spray Agent Orange.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.
For instance, it led to 3 million Vietnamese people suffering health problems, one million birth defects caused directly by exposure to Agent Orange, and 24% of the area of Vietnam being defoliated.

Environmental Modification Convention

Environmental ModificationConventEnvironmental ModificationConvention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
The United Nations ratified United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72 and the Environmental Modification Convention.
Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orange, but it does require case-by-case consideration.

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

dioxinsdioxindioxin compound
In addition to its damaging environmental effects, traces of dioxin (mainly TCDD, the most toxic of its type) found in the mixture have caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed. The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
The defoliant Agent Orange contained dioxins.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwar
It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971.
Agent Orange and similar chemical substances used by the U.S. have also caused a considerable number of deaths and injuries in the intervening years, including among the US Air Force crews that handled them.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
Since at least 1978, several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them Dow Chemical, Monsanto, and Diamond Shamrock.
The company once manufactured controversial products such as the insecticide DDT, PCBs, Agent Orange, and recombinant bovine growth hormone.

Geneva Protocol

1925 Geneva Convention1925 Geneva ProtocolGeneva Convention of 1925
As early as 1966, resolutions were introduced to the United Nations charging that the U.S. was violating the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which regulated the use of chemical and biological weapons.
There have been differing interpretations over whether the protocol covers the use of harassing agents, such as adamsite and tear gas, and defoliants and herbicides, such as Agent Orange, in warfare.

Okinawa Prefecture

OkinawaOkinawanOkinawa, Japan
Military members who served on Okinawa also claim to have been exposed to the chemical but there is no verifiable evidence to corroborate these claims.
In 2011, it was reported that the U.S. military—contrary to repeated denials by the Pentagon—had kept tens of thousands of barrels of Agent Orange on the island.

Operation Downfall

invasion of JapanAllied invasionOperation Coronet
As a result, the U.S. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during Operation Downfall if the war had continued.
Active ingredients in LN-8 and another tested compound would later be used to create Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention notes that in particular, there are higher rates of acute/chronic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, throat cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, Ischemic heart disease, soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer. This list now includes B cell leukemias, such as hairy cell leukemia, Parkinson's disease and ischemic heart disease, these last three having been added on August 31, 2010.
Exposure to the herbicide Agent Orange may increase risk.

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
Some studies have suggested that veterans exposed to Agent Orange may be more at risk of developing prostate cancer and potentially more than twice as likely to develop higher-grade, more lethal prostate cancers. Through this process, the list of 'presumptive' conditions has grown since 1991, and currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes mellitus, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange as conditions associated with exposure to the herbicide.
Research released in May 2007 found that US war veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange had a 48% increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence following surgery.

Agent Orange Act of 1991

Agent Orange Act
In 1991, Congress enacted the Agent Orange Act, giving the Department of Veterans Affairs the authority to declare certain conditions "presumptive" to exposure to Agent Orange/dioxin, making these veterans who served in Vietnam eligible to receive treatment and compensation for these conditions.
Agent Orange Act of 1991 establishes provisions for the National Academy of Sciences to analyze and summarize scientific evidence regarding presumptive military service exposure to defoliants, dioxins and herbicides, better known as Agent Orange, during the Vietnam War era.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

chronic lymphocytic leukaemiasmall lymphocytic lymphomaCLL
Through this process, the list of 'presumptive' conditions has grown since 1991, and currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes mellitus, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange as conditions associated with exposure to the herbicide.
Exposure to Agent Orange and certain insecticides might also be a risk.

Dow Chemical Company

DowDow ChemicalThe Dow Chemical Company
Since at least 1978, several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them Dow Chemical, Monsanto, and Diamond Shamrock.
Agent Orange, a chemical defoliant containing dioxin, was also manufactured by Dow in New Plymouth, New Zealand, and in the United States for use by the British military during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. military during the Vietnam War.

Rainbow Herbicides

military herbicidesrainbow herbicide
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.
Agent Orange or Herbicide Orange, (HO): 50% n-butyl ester 2,4-D and 50% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T used 1965–70

Hairy cell leukemia

hairy cell leukaemialeukemia, hairy cellchronic leukemia
This list now includes B cell leukemias, such as hairy cell leukemia, Parkinson's disease and ischemic heart disease, these last three having been added on August 31, 2010.
As a result of the IOM report, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs considers HCL an illness presumed to be a service-related disability (see Agent Orange).

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D2, 4-D2,4D
It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
2,4-D is one of the ingredients in Agent Orange, an herbicide that was widely used during the Vietnam War.

Phenoxy herbicide

phenoxy acidphenoxy herbicideschlorophenoxy acid herbicides
The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
* Agent Orange

Chloracne

Through this process, the list of 'presumptive' conditions has grown since 1991, and currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes mellitus, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange as conditions associated with exposure to the herbicide.
Chloracne is particularly linked to toxic exposure to dioxins (byproducts of many chemical processes, including the manufacture of herbicides such as Agent Orange)—so much so that it is considered a clinical sign of dioxin exposure.