aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavioraggressive behaviourhuman aggressionaggressivelychildhood aggressionaggressivityaggroaggresion
Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.wikipedia
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Relational aggression

abusive relationshipabusiveabusive relationships
Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression; whilst the former is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the latter is characterized by behavior intended to harm the social relations of an individual or group.
Relational aggression or alternative aggression is a type of aggression in which harm is caused by damaging someone's relationships or social status.


Classification may also encompass aggression-related emotions (e.g. anger) and mental states (e.g. impulsivity, hostility).
The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times public acts of aggression.


Classification may also encompass aggression-related emotions (e.g. anger) and mental states (e.g. impulsivity, hostility).
Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior.

Verbal aggressiveness

aggressive verbalverbally
Aggression can take a variety of forms, which may be expressed physically, or communicated verbally or non-verbally: including anti-predator aggression, defensive aggression (fear-induced), predatory aggression, dominance aggression, inter-male aggression, resident-intruder aggression, maternal aggression, species-specific aggression, sex-related aggression, territorial aggression, isolation-induced aggression, irritable aggression, and brain-stimulation-induced aggression (hypothalamus).
Verbal aggressiveness in communication has been studied to examine the underlying message of how the aggressive communicator gains control over different things that occur, through the usage of verbal aggressiveness.

Non-aggression principle

non-aggressioninitiation of forcenon-aggression axiom
Examples are the axiomatic moral view called the non-aggression principle and the political rules governing the behavior of one country toward another.
The non-aggression principle (NAP), also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle, or non-initiation of force, is an ethical stance asserting that aggression is inherently wrong.

Workplace aggression

aggressionCyber-aggression in the workplacehostile interactions
Likewise in competitive sports, or in the workplace, some forms of aggression may be sanctioned and others not (see Workplace aggression).
Workplace aggression is a specific type of aggression which occurs in the workplace.


ethologistanimal behavioranimal behaviour
Ethologists study aggression as it relates to the interaction and evolution of animals in natural settings.
Ethologists typically show interest in a behavioural process rather than in a particular animal group, and often study one type of behaviour, such as aggression, in a number of unrelated species.

Social defeat

social defeat stress
Losing confrontations may be called social defeat, and winning or losing is associated with a range of practical and psychological consequences.
Social psychology approaches to human aggression have developed a multitude of perspectives, based on observations of human phenomena like bullying, mobbing, physical and verbal abuse, relational and indirect aggression, etc. Despite the richness of theories developed, the body of knowledge generated has not satisfied scientific requirements of testability and verifiability.

Agonistic behaviour

agonisticagonistic behavioragonism
The term agonistic behaviour is sometimes used to refer to these forms of behavior.
The term has broader meaning than aggressive behaviour because it includes threats, displays, retreats, placation, and conciliation.

Male warrior hypothesis

According to the male warrior hypothesis, intergroup aggression represents an opportunity for men to gain access to mates, territory, resources and increased status.
Specifically, the evolutionary history of coalitional aggression between groups of men may have resulted in sex-specific differences in the way outgroups are perceived, creating ingroup vs. outgroup tendencies that are still observable today.


Evolutionary psychology and sociobiology have also discussed and produced theories for some specific forms of male aggression such as sociobiological theories of rape and theories regarding the Cinderella effect.
Critics, led by Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould, argued that genes played a role in human behavior, but that traits such as aggressiveness could be explained by social environment rather than by biology.

Challenge hypothesis

The challenge hypothesis outlines the dynamic relationship between plasma testosterone levels and aggression in mating contexts in many species.
The challenge hypothesis outlines the dynamic relationship between testosterone and aggression in mating contexts.

Conflict resolution

reconciliationpeace processresolution
In addition, following aggressive incidents, various forms of conflict resolution have been observed in mammalian species, particularly in gregarious primates.
Aggression is more common among relatives and within a group than between groups.

Dominance hierarchy

dominance hierarchiesdominancedomination
One of its most common functions is to establish a dominance hierarchy.
These hierarchies are not fixed and depend on any number of changing factors, among them are age, gender, body size, intelligence, and aggressiveness.


impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
Classification may also encompass aggression-related emotions (e.g. anger) and mental states (e.g. impulsivity, hostility).
Half of the items describe impulsive aggression and half the items describe premeditated aggression.


A deficit in serotonin has been theorized to have a primary role in causing impulsivity and aggression.

Major urinary proteins

major urinary proteinDarcinAlpha-2u globulin
In mice, major urinary proteins (Mups) have been demonstrated to promote innate aggressive behavior in males, and can be mediated by neuromodulatory systems.
They have been demonstrated to promote aggression in male mice, and one specific Mup protein found in male mouse urine is sexually attractive to female mice.


frustratedwhinea lack of social reward
In humans, aggression can be caused by various triggers, from frustration due to blocked goals to feeling disrespected.


violentviolent behaviorphysical violence
Research on violence from a range of disciplines lend some support to a distinction between affective and predatory aggression.


warfarearmed conflictconflict
The ǃKung people were described as 'The Harmless People' in a popular work by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas in 1958, while Lawrence Keeley's 1996 War Before Civilization suggested that regular warfare without modern technology was conducted by most groups throughout human history, including most Native American tribes.
It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
Abnormalities in these systems also are known to be induced by stress, either severe, acute stress or chronic low-grade stress
Aggressive behavior has also been associated with abnormalities in these systems.

Resource holding potential

These try to understand not just one-off encounters but protracted stand-offs, and mainly differ in the criteria by which an individual decides to give up rather than risk loss and harm in physical conflict (such as through estimates of resource holding potential).

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
An animal defending against a predator may engage in either "fight or flight" or "tend and befriend" in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on its estimate of the predator's strength relative to its own.
Individuals with higher levels of emotional reactivity may be prone to anxiety and aggression, which illustrates the implications of appropriate emotional reaction in the fight or flight response.

Anabolic steroid

anabolic steroidsanabolic-androgenic steroidanabolic–androgenic steroid
The possible correlation between testosterone and aggression could explain the "roid rage" that can result from anabolic steroid use, although an effect of abnormally high levels of steroids does not prove an effect at physiological levels.

Territory (animal)

Aggression may help an animal secure territory, including resources such as food and water.