Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreementconcordagreesagreeingverb agreementformal agreementconcordancenumber agreement
Agreement or concord (abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.wikipedia
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Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
Agreement or concord (abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
Agreement based on grammatical number can occur between verb and subject, as in the case of grammatical person discussed above.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
This is because the grammar of the language requires that the verb and its subject agree in person.
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence.

Plural

pl.plplurals
For instance, in American English the phrase the United Nations is treated as singular for purposes of agreement even though it is formally plural.
Words of other types, such as verbs, adjectives and pronouns, also frequently have distinct plural forms, which are used in agreement with the number of their associated nouns.

Possessive determiner

possessive adjectivepossessivespossessive article
Agreement between pronoun (or corresponding possessive adjective) and antecedent also requires the selection of the correct person.
In many languages, possessive determiners are subject to agreement with the noun they modify, as in the French mon, ma, mes, respectively the masculine singular, feminine singular and plural forms corresponding to the English my.

Grammatical conjugation

conjugationconjugatedconjugations
In fact the two categories are often conflated within verb conjugation patterns: there are specific verb forms for first person singular, second person plural and so on. Some examples:
Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.

Synesis

notional agreementconstructio ad sensumsunesis
The verb form must be selected so that it has the same person as the subject in contrast to notional agreement, which is based on meaning.
It is effectively an agreement of words with the sense, instead of the morphosyntactic form.

Gender in English

Englishgender's relationship to pronounsmale to female pronouns
For more detail see Gender in English.
Determiners and attributive adjectives showed gender inflection in agreement with the noun they modified.

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
For example, in French:
Verbs in the finite moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and conditional) are also conjugated to agree with their subjects in person (first, second, or third) and number (singular or plural).

Polypersonal agreement

polypersonalismpolypersonalobligatory verbal agreement
In Hungarian, verbs have polypersonal agreement, which means they agree with more than one of the verb's arguments: not only its subject but also its (accusative) object.
In linguistics, polypersonal agreement or polypersonalism is the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments (usually up to four).

Null-subject language

null subjectnull-subjectnull subject language
For this reason, Latin is described as a null-subject language.
Typically, null-subject languages express person, number, and/or gender agreement with the referent on the verb, rendering a subject noun phrase redundant.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence.
Requiring the forms or inflections of more than one word in a sentence to be compatible with each other according to the rules of the language is known as concord or agreement.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence.
On other occasions, a category may not be marked overtly on the item to which it pertains, being manifested only through other grammatical features of the sentence, often by way of grammatical agreement.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
*der gute Mann ("the good man", nominative case) vs. des guten Mann(e)s ("of the good man", genitive case)
In some languages, nouns in the genitive case also agree in case with the nouns they modify (that is, it is marked for two cases).

Noun class

noun classesnoun-classnoun-class system
Swahili, like all other Bantu languages, has numerous noun classes.
Noun classes form a system of grammatical agreement.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
The predicate agrees in number with the subject and if it is copulative (i.e., it consists of a noun/adjective and a linking verb), both parts agree in number with the subject.
Another issue is verb agreement when both subject and predicative expression are noun phrases (and differ in number or person): in English, the copula normally agrees with the preceding phrase even if it is not logically the subject, as in the cause of the riot is (not are) these pictures of the wall.

Sequence of tenses

consecutio temporumthe sequence of tenseprimary tense
Sequence of tenses — sometimes called agreement of tenses
Sequence of tenses (known in Latin as consecutio temporum, and also known as agreement of tenses, succession of tenses and tense harmony) is a set of grammatical rules of a particular language, governing the agreement between the tenses of verbs in related clauses or sentences.

Passé composé

For example, in the French compound past tense, the past participle agrees in certain circumstances with the subject or with an object (see passé composé for details).
The use of the past participle in compound tenses in French is complicated by occasional "agreement" with the object of the action.

Pancake sentence

This phenomenon is referred to as pancake sentences.
Pancake sentences are a phenomenon in Scandinavian linguistics where sentence agreement does not follow conventional linguistic patterns.

Redundancy (linguistics)

redundancyredundantRedundancy (language)
Redundancy (linguistics)
Because of agreement – a requirement in many languages that the form of different words in a phrase or clause correspond with one another – the same semantic information may be marked several times.

Swahili language

SwahiliKiswahiliSwahili/Kiswahili
Swahili, like all other Bantu languages, has numerous noun classes. Languages can have no conventional agreement whatsoever, as in Japanese or Malay; barely any, as in English; a small amount, as in spoken French; a moderate amount, as in Greek or Latin; or a large amount, as in Swahili.
Swahili phrases agree with nouns in a system of concord, but if the noun refers to a human, they accord with noun classes 1-2 regardless of their noun class.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Languages can have no conventional agreement whatsoever, as in Japanese or Malay; barely any, as in English; a small amount, as in spoken French; a moderate amount, as in Greek or Latin; or a large amount, as in Swahili.
In Modern English, adjectives are not inflected, and they do not agree in form with the noun they modify, as adjectives in most other Indo-European languages do. For example, in the phrases the slender boy, and many slender girls, the adjective slender does not change form to agree with either the number or gender of the noun.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
In languages that have a system of cases, there is often agreement by case between a noun and its modifiers.
Agreement (linguistics)

Nynorsk

Norwegian NynorsklandsmålNorwegian (Nynorsk)
In New Norwegian and Swedish, the past participle must agree in gender and number.
Adjectives have to agree with the noun in both gender and number just like Bokmål.