Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturistcropsagrarianfarmercropagricultural industrycultivationcultivate
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation on soil and the rearing of livestock.wikipedia
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History of agriculture

agricultureagricultural historydevelopment of agriculture
The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago before they became domesticated.
Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.

Agricultural science

agriculturalistagricultural scientistagricultural research
The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.

Monoculture

monoculturesmonoculturalmonospecific
Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has in the past century come to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people worldwide still depend on subsistence agriculture.
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.

Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals.

Animal husbandry

husbandrybreedingcattle breeding
Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat. Thus defined, it includes arable farming, horticulture, animal husbandry, and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice often excluded.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

Civilization

civilisationcivilizationshuman civilization
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.
Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization, the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour, culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming and expansionism.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological and environmental damage.
Plant breeding started with sedentary agriculture and particularly the domestication of the first agricultural plants, a practice which is estimated to date back 9,000 to 11,000 years.

Agrochemical

agrochemicalsagricultural chemicalsagrichemical
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological and environmental damage.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.

Meat industry

meatbeef productionbeef
Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat.
The term meat industry describes modern industrialized livestock agriculture for production, packing, preservation and marketing of meat (in contrast to dairy products, wool, etc.).

Fruit

fruitsseed podfruiting
Classes of foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs.
Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.

Meat

meatsmeat consumptionprocessed meat
Classes of foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs.
Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist.

Sheep

ramlambdomestic sheep
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago.
One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk.

Horticulture

horticulturisthorticulturalcultivation
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, horticulture, animal husbandry, and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice often excluded.
In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry.

Vegetable

vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Classes of foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs.
Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers.

Cereal

graincerealsgrains
Classes of foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs.
Agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and eventually the development of cities.

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamianancient MesopotamiaIraq
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago.
Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture".

Natufian culture

NatufianLate NatufianNatufians
Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China.
The culture was unusual in that it supported a sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture.

Agriculture in China

agricultureagriculturalChina
In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming.
Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers.

Agriculture in ancient Greece

agricultureagriculturalagriculture as used by the ancient Greeks
In ancient Greece and Rome, the major cereals were wheat, emmer, and barley, alongside vegetables including peas, beans, and olives.
Agriculture was the foundation of the Ancient Greek economy.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat.
The Neolithic period saw extensive deforestation for farming land.

Terrace (agriculture)

terracesterraceterraced
The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands.
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

Neolithic founder crops

founder crops9000-8000 BCancient grain legume crop
From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant.
The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe.

Chinampa

chinampaschinamitl
The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands.
Chinampa (chināmitl ) is a type of Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.

Sedentism

sedentarysedentarizationsedentarisation
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China.
The shift to sedentism is coupled with the adoption of new subsistence strategies, specifically from foraging (hunter-gatherer) to agricultural and animal domestication.

Hunter-gatherer

hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering.
Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.