Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
China has the largest agricultural output of any country.
Among the various cradles of civilization is Ancient Egypt. Pictured are the Giza Pyramids.
The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
The Acropolis of Athens: Athens is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.
Centres of origin, as numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the 1930s. Area 3 (gray) is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and New Guinea (area P, orange) was identified more recently.
Major Sumerian cities during the Ubaid period
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
The End of Dinner by Jules-Alexandre Grün (1913). The emergence of table manners and other forms of etiquette and self-restraint are presented as a characteristic of civilized society by Norbert Elias in his book The Civilizing Process (1939).
Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from ancient Egypt. Tomb of Nakht, 15th century BC
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
The main biomes in Africa
Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
The Indus Valley Civilization at its greatest extent
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
A Blue Shield International mission in Libya during the war in 2011 to protect the cultural assets there.
Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.
Traditional Xia sites (black) and Erlitou sites (red) near the Yellow River (Huang He)
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer
Map of Caral-Supe sites
Sunset in Sahara
The ruins of Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan
Spreading manure by hand in Zambia
The Olmec heartland, where the Olmec reigned
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
A world map of major civilizations according to the political hypothesis Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington.
On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed.
The Fertile Crescent in 7500 BC. The red squares designate farming villages.
Sahel region of Mali
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.<ref>Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur in 1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629042823/http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/tafur.html#ch5 |date=29 June 2011 }}).</ref>
Rollover protection bar retrofitted to a mid-20th century Fordson tractor
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
The Acropolis in Greece, directly influencing architecture and engineering in Western, Islamic and Eastern civilizations up to the present day, 2400 years after construction.
Value of agricultural production, 2016
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
The Persepolis in Iran: Pictures of the Gate of All Nations, the main entrance for all representatives of other nations and states. Persepolis appears to have been a grand ceremonial complex, that it was especially used for celebrating Nowruz, the Persian New Year, in 515 BC.
Slash and burn shifting cultivation, Thailand
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
The Temples of Baalbek in Lebanon show us the religious and architectural styles of some of the world's most influential civilizations including the Phoenicians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs.
Intercropping of coconut and Mexican marigold
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
The Roman Forum in Rome, Italy, the political, economic, cultural and religious center of the Ancient Rome civilization, during the Republic and later Empire, its ruins still visible today in modern-day Rome.
Intensively farmed pigs
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
The Ziggurat of Ur in Iraq. Ziggurats are iconic monuments of ancient Mesopotamian civilization, which developed the first true cities in the world<ref name="Alex, Bridget">{{cite web |last1=Alex |first1=Bridget |title=Which Ancient City is Considered the Oldest in the World? |url=https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/which-ancient-city-is-considered-the-oldest-in-the-world |website=Discover |publisher=Kalmbach Media CO. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and influenced numerous kingdoms and empires in the Near East and the Mediterranean in domains such as architecture, religion, trade, artisanry, writing, law, and mathematics.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Johandi |first1=Andreas |title=Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion: The Example of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions |journal=ENDC Proceedings |date=2012 |volume=16 |pages=159–179 |url=https://www.ksk.edu.ee/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/KVUOA_Toimetised_16_9_Johandi.pdf |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Jacobsen |first1=Thorkild |title=Mesopotamian Religion |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mesopotamian-religion |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=David |first1=Katie |title=From Babylon to Crete, a Millennium of Influence: The Creation of the Gortyn Law Code |url=http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y |website=Brandeis.edu |publisher=Brandeis University |year=2014 |access-date=2021-06-06 |archive-date=10 August 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810014729/http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Papakitsos |first1=Evangelos C. |title=Inquiring into the Origin of the Minoan Civilization via Systems Modelling in Humanities |journal=Social Science and Humanities Research |date=2020 |volume=3 |issue=5 |pages=40–58 |url=http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/277/133 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ancient Mathematical Sources |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/mathematics/Ancient-mathematical-sources |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
While the Great Wall of China was built to protect Ancient Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of nomadic groups, over thousands of years the region of China was also home to many influential civilizations.
Tilling an arable field
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Virupaksha Temple at Hampi in India. The region of India is home and center to major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism and has influenced other cultures and civilizations, particularly in Asia.
A center pivot irrigation system
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Machu Picchu in Peru is the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization in the Andean mountains. One of the New7Wonders of the World.
Winnowing grain: global warming will probably harm crop yields in low latitude countries like Ethiopia.
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
El Castillo, at Chichen Itza. The Maya civilization is noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Wheat cultivar tolerant of high salinity (left) compared with non-tolerant variety
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom. Western civilization is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.<ref name="PerryChase2012">{{cite book|author1=Marvin Perry |author2=Myrna Chase |author3=James Jacob |author4=Margaret Jacob |author5=Theodore H. Von Laue|title=Western Civilization: Since 1400|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|date=1 January 2012|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-1-111-83169-1|page=XXIX|access-date=11 January 2021|archive-date=23 May 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200523120857/https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|url-status=live}}</ref> Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.<ref>{{cite book |last=Spielvogel |first=Jackson J. |title=Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715 |year=2016 |isbn=978-1-305-63347-6 |edition=Cengage Learning |page=156}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Neill |first=Thomas Patrick |title=Readings in the History of Western Civilization, Volume 2 |year=1957 |edition=Newman Press |page=224}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author-link=Gerald O'Collins|last1=O'Collins|first1=Gerald|title=Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity |year=2003|isbn=978-0-19-925995-3|publisher=Oxford University Press |last2=Farrugia|first2=Maria |page=v (preface)}}</ref><ref>Roman Catholicism {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150506111019/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507284/Roman-Catholicism |date=6 May 2015 }}, "Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica</ref><ref name="Caltron J.H Hayas">Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p. 2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo–Graeco–Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.</ref>
Seedlings in a green house. This is what it looks like when seedlings are growing from plant breeding.
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. An architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox civilization.<ref>{{harvnb|Cameron|2009}}.</ref><ref name="M130">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982}}.</ref><ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996">{{harvnb|Heinle|Schlaich|1996}}</ref> Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity, and Ottoman architecture.<ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996"/> Represents the legacy of the Byzantine Empire one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe,<ref name="M19">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982|p=19}}.</ref> noted for its art, architecture, science, medicine, and law.<ref>{{harvnb|Anastos|1962|p=409}}.</ref>
Genetically modified potato plants (left) resist virus diseases that damage unmodified plants (right).
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
The Round city of Baghdad was founded by caliph Al-Mansur in 762–766 CE as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, setting the stage for the Islamic Golden Age beginning with the subsequent construction of the House of Wisdom. It is the fabled city in One Thousand and One Nights.<ref name="Netton">{{cite book |last1=Netton |first1=Ian Richard |title=Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization and Religion |date=19 December 2013 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-135-17967-0 |pages=80–81 |url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |access-date=4 September 2020 |language=en |archive-date=1 April 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210401104746/https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Water pollution in a rural stream due to runoff from farming activity in New Zealand
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
Borobudur in Indonesia is the world's largest Buddhist monument and represents the Javanese and Malay empire of Srivijaya,<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Buddhist Temple |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-buddhist-temple/ |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Zakharov">{{cite web |last1=Zakharov |first1=Anton O. |title=The Śailendras Reconsidered |url=https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/nsc_working_paper_series_12.pdf |publisher=ISEAS |year=2012 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Dellios and Ferguson">{{cite web |last1=Dellios |first1=Rosita |last2=Ferguson |first2=James R. |title=Thinking Through Srivijaya: Polycentric Networks in Traditional Southeast Asia |url=http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/GSCIS%20Singapore%202015/Archive/23e81aa1-2e38-42a5-86f5-d95c45e4d9ce.pdf |publisher=Bond University, Australia |year=2015 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> a prominent seaborne civilization and center of scholarship whose religious, cultural, political, and economic influence spread throughout Southeast Asia and into China, India, Tibet, and Korea. <ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/184/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakusu |first1=Junjiro |title=An Introduction to I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695) |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |year=1896 |publisher=Oxford, The Clarendon press |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="sen">{{Cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra |title=A Textbook of Medieval Indian History |publisher=Primus Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-9-38060-734-4 |page=34}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Farmyard anaerobic digester converts waste plant material and manure from livestock into biogas fuel.
The Sahara today
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow; the most popular icon of Russian civilization.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.lonelyplanet.com/russia/moscow/attractions/st-basils-cathedral/a/poi-sig/373447/360429|title=St Basil's Cathedral|work=Lonely Planet|access-date=10 March 2021}}</ref> Russian civilization has had a considerable influence on global culture, it also has a rich material culture and a tradition in science and technology.
Circular irrigated crop fields in Kansas. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed or have lain in fallow for the year.
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara
Angkor Wat in Cambodia is the largest religious structure ever constructed in human history<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Religious Structure |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-religious-structure |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and represents the legacy of the Khmer Empire, one of the most influential civilizations of Southeast Asia and home to the world's biggest preindustrial city by area.<ref name="Bang et al.">{{cite book |last1=Bang |first1=Peter Fibiger |last2=Bayly |first2=C. A. |last3=Scheidel |first3=Walter |title=The Oxford World History of Empire: Volume Two: The History of Empires |date=2020 |publisher=Oxford University Press |pages=430–448 |isbn=978-0-19-753278-2 |edition=Volume Two |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6GkLEAAAQBAJ&q=khmer+empire+influence+tai&pg=PA430 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Evans et al.">{{cite journal |last1=Evans |first1=Damian |last2=Pottier |first2=Christophe |last3=Fletcher |first3=Roland |last4=Hensley |first4=Scott |last5=Tapley |first5=Ian |last6=Milne |first6=Anthony |last7=Barbetti |first7=Michael |title=A Comprehensive Archaeological Map of the World's Largest Preindustrial Settlement Complex at Angkor, Cambodia |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=4 September 2007 |volume=104 |issue=36 |pages=14277–14282 |publisher=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |doi=10.1073/pnas.0702525104 |pmid=17717084 |pmc=1964867 |bibcode=2007PNAS..10414277E |doi-access=free }}</ref>
Spraying a crop with a pesticide
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian civilization noted for its sculpture, architecture, literature, law and astronomy. Modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.<ref>{{cite book|author=A. Leo Oppenheim|title=Ancient Mesopotamia |url=https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/ancient_mesopotamia.pdf|year=1964|publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref>
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers reduce soil erosion and water pollution on this farm in Iowa.
Lalibela churches; among the most popular icon of Ethiopia, and represents the legacy of the Kingdom of Aksum, a Classical African civilization.<ref name="libraries">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iM-tASgYrDEC&q=%22classical+african+civilizations%22&pg=PA228|title=Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Libraries: Multicultural Issues|first1=Deborah A.|last1=Curry|first2=Susan Griswold|last2=Blandy|first3=Lynne M.|last3=Martin|date=February 20, 1994|publisher=Haworth Press|isbn=9781560246565|via=Google Books}}</ref>
Mechanised agriculture: from the first models in the 1940s, tools like a cotton picker could replace 50 farm workers, at the price of increased use of fossil fuel.
In 19th century Britain, the protectionist Corn Laws led to high prices and widespread protest, such as this 1846 meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League.
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

A cradle of civilization is a location and a culture where civilization was created by mankind independent of other civilizations in other locations.

- Cradle of civilization

Civilizations are intimately associated with additional characteristics such as centralization, the domestication of plant and animal species (including humans), specialization of labour, culturally-ingrained ideologies of progress, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming, and expansionism.

- Civilization

Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.

- Agriculture

Studies based on morphological, genetic, and archaeological data have attributed these settlements to migrants from the Fertile Crescent in the Near East arriving in Egypt and North Africa during the Egyptian and North African Neolithic Revolution and bringing agriculture to the region.

- Cradle of civilization

This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India.

- Agriculture

Geological evidence and computer climate modeling studies also suggest that natural climate changes around 8000 BC began to desiccate the extensive pastoral lands of northern Africa, eventually forming the Sahara.

- Cradle of civilization

Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various elitist Chalcolithic civilizations began to rise in various "cradles" from around 3600 BCE beginning with Mesopotamia, expanding into large-scale empires in the course of the Bronze Age (Akkadian Empire, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Neo-Sumerian Empire, Old Assyrian Empire, Babylonian Empire, Hittite Empire, and to some degree the territorial expansions of the Elamites, Hurrians, Amorites and Ebla).

- Civilization

Tichitt culture, at Dhar Néma, Dhar Tagant, Dhar Tichitt, and Dhar Walata, included a four-tiered hierarchal social structure, farming of cereals, metallurgy, numerous funerary tombs, and a rock art tradition At Dhar Tichitt and Dhar Walata, pearl millet may have also been independently tamed amid the Neolithic.

- Sahara

The urban Tichitt Tradition may have been the earliest large-scale, complexly organized society in West Africa, and an early civilization of the Sahara, which may have served as the segue for state formation in West Africa.

- Sahara
Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.

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