A report on Mapuche and Agriculture in Chile

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Llamas in Lauca National Park
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Agriculture in Elqui valley
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Many of Chile's vineyards are found on dorp land within the foothills of the Andes.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Aquacultre installations in southern Chile.
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Lambs in Tierra del Fuego.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Huaso in a Chilean wheat field, 1940. The picture illustrates some of Chile's two most important agriculture products cattle farming and wheat.
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
All mainland Spanish settlements (red dots) south of Biobío River were destroyed by 1604.
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
1744 engraving published in Relación histórica del viaje a la América meridional. The image shows cattle in the Chilean countryside including a square for cattle slaughter.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in a meeting with the main Mapuche loncos of Araucania in 1869. With the Occupation of the Araucanía, that culminated in the 1880s, new lands were made available for non-indigenous agriculture.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

Rich Spanish settlers had over time to face opposition to their mode of production by Jesuits, Spanish officials and indigenous Mapuches.

- Agriculture in Chile

First, the Chilean state aimed for territorial continuity and second it remained the sole place for Chilean agriculture to expand.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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View of a modern reconstruction of the Fort of Purén built during the occupation.

Occupation of Araucanía

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View of a modern reconstruction of the Fort of Purén built during the occupation.
Mapuche groups in Araucanía around 1850. De facto Chilean territory in blue.
Painting showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Photo of Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez, the planner and military leader of the occupation until 1871.
Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontier established by 1870
Painting of the Mapuche cavalry charge at Quecherehuas.
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in a meeting with some of the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Portrait of Quilapán c. 1870.
Communes grouped by dates in which they were founded, 19th century communes were founded as forts. And those of Curarrehue and Teodoro Schmidt were organized from previous populations as early as 1981.
Chilean army during the Occupation of Araucanía.
Map of land ownership in western Araucanía in 1916.
Photo of an Italian immigrant family in Capitán Pastene, Araucanía.

The Occupation of Araucanía or Pacification of Araucanía (1861–1883) was a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and settlers into Mapuche territory which led to the incorporation of Araucanía into Chilean national territory.

In the years following the occupation the economy of Araucanía changed from being based on sheep and cattle herding to one based on agriculture and wood extraction.