Statue of Messalina holding her son Britannicus, at the Louvre
A bust at the National Museum, Warsaw
Ancient bust of Seneca, part of the Double Herm of Socrates and Seneca
Messalina in a coin minted in Crete, c. AD 42
Modern statue of Seneca in Córdoba
A bust believed to be of Messalina, in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence
During the reign of Caligula, coins like the one pictured here were issued depicting his three sisters, Drusilla, Livilla, and Agrippina the Younger.
Nero and Seneca, by Eduardo Barrón (1904). Museo del Prado
Messalina guides the dragon chariot in the triumph of Claudius
Messalina holding her son Britannicus (Louvre)
Manuel Domínguez Sánchez, The suicide of Seneca (1871), Museo del Prado
Messalina working in a brothel: etching by Agostino Carracci, late 16th century
Coins of Agrippina and Claudius as the de facto co-rulers of the empire
Lodovico Lana, Death of Seneca, National Gallery of Art
Peder Severin Krøyer, Messalina, 1881, Gothenburg Museum of Art
Marble bust of Nero. Antiquarium of the Palatine.
First page of the Naturales Quaestiones, made for the Catalan-Aragonese court
Messalina, Eugène Cyrille Brunet (1884), Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes
Sculpture of Agrippina crowning her young son Nero (c. AD 54 –59)
Woodcut illustration of the suicide of Seneca and the attempted suicide of his wife Pompeia Paulina
Hans Makart's painting of Charlotte Wolter in Adolf Wilbrandt's tragedy, Arria und Messalina
Gustav Wertheimer: The Shipwreck of Agrippina (1874)
Naturales quaestiones, 1522
Plato, Seneca, and Aristotle in a medieval manuscript illustration (c. 1325–35)
The "Pseudo-Seneca", a Roman bust found at Herculaneum, one of a series of similar sculptures known since the Renaissance, once identified as Seneca. Now commonly identified as Hesiod
"Seneca", ancient hero of the modern Córdoba; this architectural roundel in Seville is based on the "Pseudo-Seneca" (illustration above)
Baroque marble imaginary portrait bust of Seneca, by an anonymous sculptor of the 17th century. Museo del Prado

Her mother's brother, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, had been the first husband of the future Empress Agrippina the Younger and the biological father of the future Emperor Nero, making Nero Messalina's first cousin despite a seventeen-year age difference.

- Messalina

Within the first year of Claudius' reign, his niece Julia Livilla, only recently recalled from banishment upon the death of her brother Caligula, was exiled again on charges of adultery with Seneca the Younger.

- Messalina

In 41 AD, Claudius became emperor, and Seneca was accused by the new empress Messalina of adultery with Julia Livilla, sister to Caligula and Agrippina.

- Seneca the Younger

Domitia Lepida the Younger was the mother of the Empress Valeria Messalina.

- Agrippina the Younger

Among the victims of Messalina's intrigues were Agrippina's surviving sister Livilla, who was charged with having adultery with Seneca the Younger.

- Agrippina the Younger
Statue of Messalina holding her son Britannicus, at the Louvre

3 related topics with Alpha


Bust, Musei Capitolini, Rome


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The fifth Roman emperor and final emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigning from AD 54 until his death in AD 68.

The fifth Roman emperor and final emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigning from AD 54 until his death in AD 68.

Bust, Musei Capitolini, Rome
An aureus of Nero and his mother, Agrippina, c. 54. Caption: NERONIS CAES MATER AGRIPP. AVG. DIVI CLAVD. / NERONI CLAVD. DIVI F. CAES. AVG. GERM. IMP. TR. P. – EX SC
Bust of Nero, National Museum in Oslo
Bust of Nero as pharaoh
Emperor Nero being instructed by Seneca, work by Spanish sculptor Eduardo Barrón
Coin of Nero and Poppaea Sabina Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt, 25 mm, 12.51 gr. Obverse: radiate head right; ΝΕΡΩ. ΚΛΑΥ. ΚΑΙΣ. ΣΕΒ. ΓΕΡ. ΑΥ. Reverse: draped bust of Poppaea right; ΠΟΠΠΑΙΑ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ. Year LI = 10 = 63–64.
The Fire of Rome by Hubert Robert (1785)
A marble bust of Nero, Antiquarium of the Palatine.
An 1815 illustration of the alleged tomb of Nero; actually tomb of proconsul Caius Vibius Marianus.
Apotheosis of Nero, c. after 68. Artwork portraying Nero rising to divine status after his death.
Head of Nero from an oversized statue. Glyptothek, Munich
A circa 18th century woodcut of the historian Josephus (c. 37–100) who accused other historians of slandering Nero.
Nero's Torches, Henryk Siemiradzki

Nero was born at Antium in AD 37, the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of the emperor Augustus.

In the early years of his reign Nero was advised and guided by his mother Agrippina, his tutor Seneca the Younger, and his praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, but he soon sought to rule independently and to rid himself of restraining influences.

Nero's inheritance was taken from him, and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida the Younger, the mother of later emperor Claudius's third wife, Messalina.

Bust, Naples National Archaeological Museum


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The fourth Roman emperor, ruling from AD 41 to 54.

The fourth Roman emperor, ruling from AD 41 to 54.

Bust, Naples National Archaeological Museum
Bust of Claudius' mother, Antonia Minor
A coin of Herod of Chalcis, showing him with his brother Agrippa of Judaea crowning Claudius. British Museum.
Aureus of Claudius, struck at the Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, dated 41–42. The depiction on the reverse meant to commemorate the "reception of the emperor" (imperator receptus) at the Praetorian Camp and the protection the Praetorian Guard afforded Claudius in the days following the assassination of Caligula. Issued over a number of years in both gold and silver, these type of coins were struck to serve as part of the annual military payments Claudius had promised the Guard in return for their role in raising him to the throne. Caption: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. P. M., TR. P. / IMPER. RECEPT.
Claudius issued this denarius type to emphasize his clemency after Caligula's assassination. The depiction of the goddess Pax-Nemesis, representing subdued vengeance, would be used on the coins of many later emperors. Caption: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P. M., TR. P. X. P. P., IMP. XVIII / PACI AVGVSTAE Pax-Nemesis standing right holding caduceus over serpent.
Bronze head of Claudius found in the River Alde at Rendham, near Saxmundham, Suffolk (British Museum). Potentially taken from the Temple of Claudius in Colonia Victricensis during the Boudican revolt.
The Porta Maggiore in Rome: remains of aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Novus
Portrait of Claudius, Altes Museum, Berlin
Messalina holding her son Britannicus, Louvre
The Death of Messalina by Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse, 1916
Sculpture of Agrippina crowning her young son Nero (c. AD 54–59)
Claudius depicted as the Roman god Jupiter
The Claudian letters
A statue of Claudius in the Wesgha tal-Muzew, Mdina, Malta

Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife, Agrippina the Younger.

Since Claudius was the first emperor proclaimed on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate, his repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as Seneca).

This section of Tacitus history narrates the alleged conspiracy of Claudius's third wife, Messalina.

Julia Livilla

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Julia Livilla (c.

Julia Livilla (c.

During the reign of Caligula, coins were issued depicting his three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Livilla

Julia Livilla was the youngest great-granddaughter of Emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of the Emperor Tiberius, sister of the Emperor Caligula, niece of the Emperor Claudius, and through her eldest sister Agrippina the Younger, maternal aunt of the Emperor Nero.

Later in 41, she fell out of favour with Messalina (Claudius's third wife) and was charged by her paternal uncle Claudius for having adultery with Seneca the Younger.