A report on Algeria and Ahmed Ben Bella

Official portrait, 1963
Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army.
Roman ruins at Djémila
Ben Bella with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Cuba, 1962
Egypt´s president Nasser with Tunisia's Bourguiba and Ben Bella, 1963
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Ahmed Ben Bella was born in Maghnia, in the former department of Oran, western Algeria, to Moroccan parents, on 25 December 1916, during the height of the French colonial period.

- Ahmed Ben Bella

Algeria's first president was the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) leader Ahmed Ben Bella.

- Algeria

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Houari Boumédiène

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The house where Boumediene was born in douar beni aadi
Boumediène during the Algerian War of Independence
thumb|The 1975 Algiers Agreement was signed by (left to right) the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Boumédiène, and the Iraqi vice-president Saddam Hussein
thumb|upright|Boumédiène in 1972
Boumediene with Ahmed Ben Bella in 1962.
Houari Boumediene standing in a row with the other politicians., 1965.
Boumediene with Cuban communist leader Fidel Castro in 1972.
alt=|Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi, Boumediene and Syrian President Hafez al-Assad in Tripoli, 1977

Houari Boumédiène (هواري بومدين ; ALA-LC: Hawwārī Būmadyan; born Mohammed Ben Brahim Boukherouba; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) was an Algerian Nationalist, politician and army colonel who served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death in 1978.

It was there he first met Ahmed Ben Bella.

National Liberation Front (Algeria)

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Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
National Liberation Army soldiers next to the Algerian flag

The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.

Consequently, the Algerian nationalists veered to a more military approach as noted in their participation in the Special Organisation (Algeria), which is a paramilitary component of the MTLD and included the important figures in Algerian politics such Ahmed Ben Bella, Hocine Aït Ahmed, and Mohammed Boudiaf.

Collage of the French war in Algeria

Algerian War

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Collage of the French war in Algeria
Battle of Somah in 1836
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857
Algerian rebel fighters in the mountains
National Liberation Army soldiers
Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Mourad Didouche, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Algiers: Muslim quarters (green), European quarters (orange), terrorist attacks
Electrified barriers along the entire length of Algeria's eastern and western borders
Barricades in Algiers, January 1960. The banner reads, "Long live Massu" (Vive Massu).
FLN female bombers
Commandos de Chasse of the 4th Zouave regiment. Zouave regiments were mostly composed of European settlers.
Young Harki in uniform, summer 1961
Ex-voto in Notre-Dame de la Garde thanking for the safe return of a son from Algeria, August 1958
French North African Operations medal, 11 January 1958
Former FLN member Saadi Yacef starred and co-produced The Battle of Algiers (1966) by Italian filmmaker Gillo Pontecorvo, which was critically acclaimed for its sense of historical authenticity and cast who had lived through the real war.

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence, and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November, was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France.

From Cairo, Ahmed Ben Bella ordered the liquidation of potential interlocuteurs valables, those independent representatives of the Muslim community acceptable to the French through whom a compromise or reforms within the system might be achieved.

President of Algeria

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The president of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces.

The presidency was held by a succession of FLN members; Ahmed Ben Bella, Houari Boumédienne and Chadli Bendjedid.

1965 Algerian coup d'état

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Ahmed Ben Bella, first president of the Algerian Republic.
Houari Boumédiène, at the time Algerian Minister of Defence.

The 1965 Algerian coup d'état brought Colonel Houari Boumédiène to power as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council in Algeria.

The bloodless coup d'état saw Algeria's first President, Ahmed Ben Bella, arrested and his closest supporters imprisoned by Boumédiène and his allies, principally in the Algerian Land Forces.

Sand War

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The Maghreb in the second half of the 19th century

The Sand War or the Sands War (حَرْبُ الرِّمَال) was a border conflict between Algeria and Morocco in October 1963.

King Hassan II of Morocco visited Algiers in March 1963 to discuss the undefined borders, but Algeria's President Ahmed Ben Bella believed the matter should be resolved at a later date.

Kabylia

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Topographic map of Kabylia.
Origin and conquests of the Fatimids
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Map showing territories that were captured or controlled by the Hammadid Dynasty
Kingdom of Beni Abbas in the 16th century during the reign of Ahmed Amokrane
First mass in Kabylia during the French conquest of Algeria, 1837
Demonstration by Kabyles in 2014
Landscape near Azazga
Kabyles
Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi

Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel or Iqbayliyen, meaning "Land of Kabyles", منطقة القبائل, meaning "Land of the Tribes") is a cultural, natural and historical region in northern Algeria and the homeland of the Kabyle people.

From the moment of independence, tensions had already developed between Kabyle leaders and the central government, with the Socialist Forces Front (FFS) party of Hocine Aït Ahmed, strong in wilayas III and IV (Kabylie and Algiers), opposing the FLN's Political Bureau centred around the person of Ahmed Ben Bella, who in turn relied upon the forces of the border army group within the ALN commanded by Houari Boumediene.

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan established Arabic as the official language of the Umayyad Caliphate in 686 CE

Arabization

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan established Arabic as the official language of the Umayyad Caliphate in 686 CE
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Sassanian weaponry, 7th century.
Garshuni sample
Map showing the late medieval migration of Arabs into Sudan
Baggara belt
Status of Arabic language map
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016
Arab Janjaweed tribes have been accused of killing hundreds of thousands of non-Arab Sudanese in a 2004/05 genocide in Darfur.
The multilingual flag of Syrian Democratic Forces expresses the polyethnic agenda of the faction in the Syrian Civil War as opposed to Arabization policies.

Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب, ) describes both the process of growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by the latter's gradual adoption of the Arabic language and incorporation of Arab culture, after the Muslim conquest of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the Arab nationalist policies of some governments in modern Arab states toward non-Arabic speaking minorities, including Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan.

While trying to build an independent and unified nation-state after the Evian Accords, the Algerian government under Ahmed Ben Bella’s rule began a policy of “Arabization”.