Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Diné boy, in the desert of Monument Valley, AZ, United States of America. The Three Sisters buttes are visible in the background.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Mapuche man, in Chile
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Mayan women in Antigua Guatemala, Central America.
Ainu leader
Language families of Indigenous peoples in North America: shown across present-day Canada, Greenland, the United States, and northern Mexico
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
The Kogi, descendants of the Tairona, are a culturally-intact, largely pre-Columbian society. The Tairona were one of the few indigenous American civilizations that were not fully conquered.
1843 illustration of Ainu
"The Maiden", one of the discovered Llullaillaco mummies. A Preserved Inca human sacrifice from around the year 1500.
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
Eight Crow Nation prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Drawing accompanying text in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585), showing Nahuas of conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Indigenous people at a Brazilian farm plantation in Minas Gerais ca. 1824
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ancient mesoamerican engraving of maize, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Main indigenous language families of South America (except Quechua, Aymaran, and Mapuche).
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico
Woman playing a tonkori
Textile art by Julia Pingushat (Inuk, Arviat, Nunavut, Canada), wool, embroidery floss, 1995
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Chimu culture feather pectoral, feathers, reed, copper, silver, hide, cordage, ca. 1350–1450 CE
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Indigenous man playing a panpipe, antara or siku
Bear hunting, 19th century
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
Ainu people, c. 1840
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and the First Men (collection of the Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver). The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies.
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Some Inuit people on a traditional qamutiik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk, Greenland
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Wixarika (Huichol) woman from Zacatecas
Chishima Ainu working
Tenejapa Carnival with Tzeltal people, Chiapas
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Rarámuri marathon in Urique.
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
Choctaw artist from Oklahoma
National Ainu Museum interior
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
Indigenous Salvadoran Pipil women dancing in the traditional Procession of Palms, Panchimalco in El Salvador
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Maya women from Guatemala
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
A Mayan woman
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Owners of a roadside cafe near Cachi, Argentina
Historical extent of the Ainu
Indigenous woman in traditional dress, near Cochabamba, Bolivia
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Indigenous man of Terena tribe from Brazil
Plan of an Ainu house.
Mapuche man and woman. The Mapuche make up about 85% of Indigenous population that live in Chile.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Guambía people relaxing in Colombia
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.
Shaman of the Cofán people from the Ecuadorian Amazon Ecuador Amazonian forest
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Cuzco Region, Peru
A Warao family from Venezuela traveling in their canoe
Evo Morales (Aymara), former President of Bolivia
Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present
Wayúu artisan women, in the Colombian-Venezuelan Guajira.
Quechua women in festive dress, on the island of Taquile (Lake Titicaca).

Genetic analyses of HLA I and HLA II genes as well as HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies links the Ainu to Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

- Ainu people

Some subclades of C and D that have been found in the limited populations of Native Americans who have agreed to DNA testing bear some resemblance to the C and D sublades in Mongolian, Amur, Japanese, Korean, and Ainu populations.

- Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

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A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993

Indigenous peoples

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Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

The term Indigenous was first, in its modern context, used by Europeans, who used it to differentiate the Indigenous peoples of the Americas from the European settlers of the Americas and from the Africans who were brought to the Americas as enslaved people.

Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin.

Japanese people

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Ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.1% of the country’s population.

Ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.1% of the country’s population.

Shakōki-dogū (遮光器土偶) (1000–400 BC), "goggle-eyed type" figurine. Tokyo National Museum.
Genetic structure of present-day and ancient Eurasian and Ikawazu Jomon.
Location of Imperial Japan
A Shinto festival in Miki, Hyogo
Hindu God Ganesha in a Buddhist Shrine in Japan
Bisque doll of Momotarō,
a character from Japanese literature and folklore
The print Red Fuji from Katsushika Hokusai's series, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
The Japantown Peace Plaza during the Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival

Depending on the context, the term ethnic Japanese (日本民族) may be limited or not to mainland Japanese people, specifically the Yamato (as opposed to Ryukyuan and Ainu people).

A 2021 study concluded that the Jōmon people split from other East Asian people at about 15,000 BCE, after the estimated split of Ancestral Native Americans from East Asians at about 25,000 BCE.

Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century

Chukchi people

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Indigenous people inhabiting now only the Chukchi Peninsula, the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

Indigenous people inhabiting now only the Chukchi Peninsula, the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century
Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century
Resettlement of the Chukchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Chukchi man
Laminar armor from hardened leather with pauldrons reinforced by wood, worn by Chukchi and Siberian Yupik people
The approximate distribution of Chukchi clans at the end of the 19th century
Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
Newlyweds Meet the Sun. Painting of Chukchi by Nikolai Getman

According to recent genomic research, the Chukchi are the closest Asiatic relatives of the indigenous peoples of the Americas as well as of the Ainu people.